m88 non-city center dwellers, and longtime residents v.
short-time residents. Tourism Review International,
As noted earlier, casinos are becoming a more important part of the
tourism economy, but the development of casino gaming is not without
controversy (Moufakkir Holecek, 2012). Although the Chinese are known for their propensity for gaming
(Blaszczynski, Huynh, Dumlao, Farrell, 1998), casino gaming is
illegal in Mainland China (Mainland China does not include Hong Kong,
Macau and Taiwan). Macau bets future on China: Asian highrollers.
Casino City Newsletter, 3(86), 2.
Giacopassi, D., Stitt, B. Japanese. These include the potential for
economic gain, environmental concerns, socioeconomic status, feelings
about the community, extent of their use of tourism resources, and
perceptions of the impacts of tourism on quality of life (Carmichael,
2000; Lankford Howard, 1994; McCool Martin, 1994; Urn
Crompton, 1987). Journal of
Travel Research, 37(2), 145-155.
411 N. Justice Professional, 14, 151-70.
Faulkner, B. Journal of
Travel Research, 34(3), 3-11.
College of Public Programs
Blaszczynski, A., Farrell, E. UNLV Gaming Research and Review
Journal, 7(2), 13-24.
H2: There is a difference in perception about gaming development
between I residents who live in city center close to the location of the
proposed casino I and those who live outside the city-center.
Jurowski, C., Uysal, M., Williams, D. Current media reports, however, indicate a
growing interest by the Chinese government in establishing casinos in
the Hainan Province. (2011). Retrieved on March 19, 2014, from
http://www.chinapost.com.tw/taiwan/local/offshoreislands/2013/01/28/368728/Matsu-population.htm Davis, D., Allen, J. A. L., Collison, J. (2011). Annals of Tourism Research, 21(1), 121-139.
Baldacchino, G., Tsai, H. Nevertheless, Mazon et al. The first approach is community
attachment”, which refers to an extent or pattern of social
participation and integration in community life (McCool Martin,
establishment in neighboring countries not only means greater
competition for gamers dollars in the region (Moufakkir, 2002), but also
the likelihood for casinos to serve only local demand. Retrieved on September 16, 2013,
The structure matrix table (Table 7) shows the corelations of each
variable with each discriminant function. (2003). Distance effect on
residents’ attitudes towards tourism. (2007b). L., Vogt, C. N.. (2007). Tourism Management, 5(1), 40-47.
Like all forms of mass tourism, gambling tourism can result in
environmental problems, such as ecological degradation and pollution
(Lee, Kang, Long Reisinger, 2010). Empowerment and stakeholder participation in
tourism destination communities. These Pearson coefficients are
structure coefficients, or discriminant loadings. (2007a). Much participatory planning
and development in China has been, and continues to be, tokenistic with
I higher-order officials consulting residents and lower-order
administrators without seriously taking their concerns to heart,
although this appears to be on the cusp of change (Bao Sun, 2007;
Timothy, 2007). Traditional gambling in
Asia included sports betting, animal races, cards, and cockfights.
Asians used to gamble at home, on the streets, and in some traditional
simplified versions of casinos (Hsu, 2006). (2007). (1985). First mainland casino
“concept opens” in Sanya Resort. (1987). New York: Haworth.
McCool, S., Martin, S. Resident
perception of the impact of limited-stakes community-based casino gaming
in mature gaming communities. J. F., Anderson, E., Tatham, R. H. A discriminant
analysis was used to find out which of the perceptions variables
discriminate the most between the sample groups. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 27(4),
Wan, Y. Results suggest
that more attention should be given to the environmental aspects of
Casino City. (2011). In A. (2001). Casinos, communities and sustainable
economic development. A
self-administered questionnaire, mail, or Internet survey, or a
combination of survey modes may offer less contaminated results
(Nederhof, 1985). T. R., Long, P. All rights reserved.
Vong, F. K., Lee, C., Yoon, Y., Long, P. Despite the proliferation of casinos,
gambling is still a controversial activity in many places, including
China. M. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(3), 503-526.
York, N. They pointed out that
concerned residents can be categorized into optimists, reserved
optimists, neutral, and skeptics. Casino gaming can be viewed as an economic development
in different guises (Felsenstein Freeman, 1998). Sanya’s population is more than 524,000
comprising some 20 nationalities, including Han, Li, Miao, and Hui.
Different populations may have different perceptions. The questionnaire was administered by a trained interviewer.
After completion of a questionnaire the interviewer would intercept the
next person in the way. (2004). Introduction to casino
and gaming operations. The SPSS output is
enormous, so only the most relevant information is indicated here.
Excerpts from the media (example in Box 1) support this claim.
Blume, C. The bar is 30,000 sq. In addition, Cronbach’s Alpha for the present study
is .825, which also validates the reliability of the instrument used.
The survey also elicited information about demographic characteristics,
participants’ length of residence, and whether or not respondents
reside in the city center (including the bay resort areas) where the
gaming development project was proposed. (2003). T. Abenoja, T. “Going forward, Macau and Singapore will continue to fuel
growth in Asia Pacific during the next few years, while other countries
in the region may look to encourage growth in casino gaming to gain
tourism and tax dollars. (2010).
Residents’ perceptions of casino impacts: A comparative study.
Tourism Management, 31(2), 189-201.
Respondents were asked the generic question “to what extent do
you agree or disagree with casino development in the city? The results
indicate that the greatest majority agrees while about one-fourth were
undecided. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14(2),
Given the Chinese interest in gaming and increased travel abroad to
gamble, the government has been assessing the feasibility of allowing
casinos in a few locations in China besides Macau. W. (1999). Gambling
studies show that socio-demographic characteristics, community
attachment, length of residence, and home ownership influence peoples
attitudes and perceptions of gambling and their support for it (Roehl,
1999; Vong, 2008; Kang, Lee, Yoon Long, 2008; Kassinove, 1998).
This study seeks to examine whether there are differences in perceptions
between tourism workers and non-tourism workers, city center dwellers
and those who live outside the city center, and long-term residents and
short-term residents. J. The questionnaires were randomly
collected from July to September 2011. Perceptions are influenced by socio-demographic
characteristics (Spears Boger, 2003), the length and place of
residence (Sheldon Var, 1984), and personal factors (Pizam, 1978;
Kwam McCarthy, 2005). S. Tourism dependence
and host community perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 17(4), 610-616.
Garrod, F., Fyall, A. Central Ave., Suite 550
Prentice, R. London: Gambling Compliance.
The Effects of Gaming on Destination Communities
Koh, W. (2008).Resident attitudes towards mountain second-home
tourism development in Norway: The effects of environmental attitudes.
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(6), 664-680.
The literature is divided on the socio-economic benefits and costs
a casino brings to a community (Moufakkir Holecek, 2012). Journal of Real Estate Finance and
Economics, 42(1), 99-114.
Global Gaming Outlook. Casinos, hotels, and crime. (2000). Some 59.1% were childless, and
most were university graduates. E. Timothy, Ph.D.
Hyperinflation is another undesirable economic outcome of casino
based tourism. However, for the time being, gamblers do not win cash
prizes; their winnings can only go toward their stay in the hotel
or purchase of luxury goods at the hotel store. 61.1% resided in the city center; the
rest lived outside the city center.
Henderson, J. K. These include: the
potential for economic gain, environmental attitudes, socioeconomic
status, feelings held about the community, extent of the use of the
tourism resource base, perceptions of the ability to control the
development of tourism, length of residence, and perceptions of the
impact of tourism on the quality of life (Ap, 1990; Carmichael, 2000;
Faulkner Tideswell, 1997; Jurowski, 1994; Jurowski, Uysal
Williams, 1997; Lankford Howard, 1994; Liu, Sheldon Var,
1986; McCool Martin, 1994; Prentice, 1993; Um Compton,
1987). The American National
Gambling Impacts Study Commission (NGISC, 1999) unanimously acknowledged
the complexity of gambling issues, and noted that “along with the
real benefits of gambling come equally undeniable and significant
costs” (p. Beyond hardcore gambling:
Understanding why Mainland Chinese visit casinos in Macau. Journal of Social Psychology, 15, 263-280.
Hair, J. Retrieved on September 14, 2013,
Despite these negative outcomes, many observers have noted the
potential positive economic outcomes of casino-based tourism, including
employment and tax revenue (Carmichael, 2001; Lee, 2011). If the concern is gaining support for gaming,
then pro-development campaigns should target citizens who do not work in
tourism. Lessons from the Atlantic City casino
experience. (1997). Annals of Tourism Research, 17(4), 586-599.
Park, M., Stokowski, P. If more costs become apparent, then
optimists or reserved optimists about the proposed development might
change into skeptic residents (Rwan McCartney, 2005). In
this case, we are interested in learning which of the variables
discriminate the most between tourism workers and non-tourism workers,
between those who live in the city center and those who live outside the
center, and between longtime residents and short-time residents. Tourism: A community approach. Accordingly, the following hypotheses were tested
in this study:
Bao, J., Sun, J. Sanya residents seem to be undecided, or
unconvinced, although this might have little relevance to the reality of
economic and political life on the ground. (1991). Andereck, K. Just over half (52.2%) claimed to be
relatively new residents in Sanya City, while the remainder had lived in
there for five years or longer. non city center dwellers .940 43.326 28 .032
Longtime residents v. McGehee and Andereck (2004), however,
argue that the relationship between community attachment and its
influence on resident attitudes is not yet conclusive. As with the
McCool and Martin study, old-timers in the present study are generally
less favorable toward tourism development, and conversely, newcomers are
more supportive of tourism it.
Kang, S. J., Var, T. Moisey. J., Var, T. (1999). (1998). 217-231.
In China, overt gambling is often associated with evil, although
China used keno-like lottery games to fund the building of the Great
Wall (O’Flahertie, 1995). Since early 2013,
cashless casinos’, where winnings cannot be cashed but can be
traded for goods (e.g. J., Tsai, S. Given the results for people living near the
proposed development versus the others, as well as long-term residents,
urban planners should consider environmentally-friendly, casino-based
facilities and amenities. (2011). A matrix for resident attitudes and
behaviours in a rapidly changing tourist area. Church T. Recently, however, Hainan province is
exploring gaming as a potential revenue source by bringing more tourists
to the region and keeping gaming expenditures at home in China (e.g.,
What’s on Sanya, 2013; echinacities, 2013; Reuters, 2013).
Arizona State University
Ensereink, B., Koppenjan, J. Methods of coping with social desirability
bias: A review. In such a case
instead of having the envisaged expansionary economic effect, gaming
might result in a redistributive effect with a limited contribution to
the local economy (Felsenstein Freeman, 1998).
While social problems may follow casino gaming, there are a few
positive social elements as well. These impacts need to be monitored.
Confirming the results of other studies as noted above, short-time
residents scored the positive social aspects slightly higher than their
counterparts did (e.g., improve quality of life ([bar.x] = 2.97 compared
to [bar.x] = 2.74, with, t = 6,391, p = .012). Only minor differences were recorded between city-dwellers and
those who live outside the city. Journal of
Travel Research, 36(2), 3-11.
Agresti, A. (2008). J., Sheldon, P. (1996). Beyond the casino:
Sustainable tourism and cultural development on Native American lands.
Tourism Geographies, 6(1), 80-98.
Consequently there is a need to find out how local residents think
about such a controversial development in their backyard. Exploring social exchange theory dynamics in
Native American casino settings. Tourism Economics, 17(2), 457-464.
Fredline, E., Faulkner, B. A few researchers have indicated that resident attitudes toward
tourism could be impacted by the distance between their place of
residence and tourism activities (Murphy, 1981; Mason Cheyne 2000;
Sheldon Var, 1984). In May
2011, the Chinese media reported lottery sales of some USD $5.07 billion
during the first quarter of 2010, an increase of 24.5% compared to the
equivalent period a year earlier. Mapping resident perceptions
of gaming impact. Despite its illegality and moral stigma,
Chinese are aggressive risk takers and eager gamers (Casino City, 2002;
Hsu 2006; Timothy Tsai, 2008; Wong Rosenbaum, 2012). As Table 3 shows, there was no statistical
significance in economic perceptions between tourism workers and other
locals. Most resident surveys about gaming have been conducted after
the establishment of casinos in a community. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(2),
Lee, T. (2013). C. recent residents .914 62.664 28 .000
Structure Matrices Table for Discriminant Analyses
Tourism workers v. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Keywords: Residents’ attitudes, gaming, casinos, China, Sanya
Carmichael, B. E. Research has also shown that people who
work in tourism are more likely to support its development than other
residents in the same community because it provides jobs, investment
opportunities and ownership potential (Fredline Faulkner, 2000;
Haralambopoulos Pizam, 1996; McGehee Andereck, 2004). (1997). Comparatively,
non-tourism workers think that casino establishment would increase
crime, addiction, family dissolution, divorce, and bankruptcy rates. Wallingford, UK: CABI.
Generally, resident attitude studies have identified factors that
influence perceptions of tourism. Organizational
citizenship behavior in the People’s Republic of China.
Organization Science, 15(2), 241-253.
Summary of results and conclusion
The only difference, although not strong, that exists between the
two groups relates to their opinion about the preservation of local
customs and culture, where those who live in the city center scored
higher than their counterparts ([bar.x] = 2.68 compared to [bar.x] =
2.50, with, t = 3,960, p =.047). These
studies reinforce previous research findings and support the reliability
and validity of the instrument in measuring residents’ attitudes
toward gaming. The
profits of foreign-owned casinos are often directed back to parent
corporations in other countries. Mapping resident
perceptions of gaming impact. Because of its natural, geographical and
cultural advantages, Sanya City is considered the most desired
destination for gaming and therefore a potential competitor for Macau.
It is the southernmost city on the Chinese island, neighboring Macau and
Hong Kong (Figure 1).
Sheldon, P. An integrated resort-casino for Singapore:
Assessing the economic impact. Residents’ perceptions on tourism impacts.
Annals of Tourism Research, 19(4), 665-690.
A Discriminant Analysis (DA) was also conducted. As already noted, the purpose of this study was to test
a series of hypotheses from the literature, and to find out which of the
perception variables are strong predictors between the sample groups.
First, the perceptions of Sanya residents about the potential of gaming
development in their community is presented.
Hsu, C. Tourism Management, 15(4), 247-258.
Phoenix, AZ 85004
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5(1),
Perceptions of casino development-short-time and longtime residents
Tourism workers believe that gaming would increase community pride,
and increase recreational opportunities in the community. Recent residents and tourism workers
appear to be more optimistic than the other groups. Journal of
Hospitality and Tourism Research, 36(1), 32-51.
Ap, J. ‘Casino cannibalism’ may also result as casinos
begin to dominate the local economy, driving out established lodging,
food and entertainment facilities with their own monopolies on these
services, creating sink holes’ rather than growth poles
Mason, P., Cheyne, J. The Philippines created a regulatory framework for casinos under
President Marcos in 1976, despite having a grey casino market since the
1930s (Ashton Korpi, 2008).
O’Flahertie, S. (1986). Global investors watch how chips fall in Chinas
cashless casino bar. Influence of personal factors on Macau residents
gaming impact perceptions. China is
positioning Hainan as an international tourist destination,
approving the construction of 15 large resorts and 63 five-star
hotels as part of the country’s five-year plan. Tideswell, C., 1997. P., Andersen, O., Nellemann, C., Bjerke, T.,
Thrane, C. Most studies examine different endogenous variables that
might affect resident views, including age, income, gender, education,
and ethnicity (Andereck Vogt, 2000; Easterling, 2004; Harrill,
2004; McGehee Andereck, 2004).
The results of this study support the literature (e.g., Carmichael,
2000; Eadington, 1986; Caneday Zeiger, 1991) that, generally,
residents are somewhat ambivalent towards casino-based tourism
development. Planners and managers should be sensitive to
the environmental concerns of those residents and should communicate
what they are doing to minimize the impact of development on the
environment to reduce opposition based on environmental concerns.
Murphy, P. Tourism Management, 14, 218-27.
Over the past three decades, gambling has grown rapidly and gained
popularity all over the world. Singapore: Institute of Policy Studies.
Blaszczynski, A., Huynh, S., Dumlao, V. Journal of Travel Research, 27, 2-8.
Gaming communities differ from one another and from non gaming
communities. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(6),
Lankford, S., Howard, D. (2004). While such an evaluation for a tourism development proposal is
difficult because of different local variables (Pizam, 1978; Liu
Var, 1986; Sheldon Var; 1984; Perdue, Long, Allen, 1987;
Ayres, 2000), the case with casino gaming development is even more
problematic because so many controversies revolve around gambling
(Moufakkir Holecek, 2012; Timothy Tsai 2008).
Promoting tourist destinations rarely finds success without the
support of local residents (App, 1992). The Economics of Casino Gambling. Piazam (1978), among others (Andereck Vogt, 2000;
Caneday Zeiger, 1991; Jurowski et al., 1997; Milman Pizam,
1988; Perdue, Long Allen, 1990; Mazon, Huete Mantecon,
2009), found that residents working in the tourism industry were more
likely to support tourism development than those who do not work in the
industry. 88). In the same period, the gross revenue
of Macau casinos was USD $5.13 billion, a 57.3% increase from the
previous year (Kareem, 2011).
The sample consists of 711 cases. London: Prentice-Hall.
Kwan, A. (2005). H., Rudd, D. Therefore
more research is continuously needed to anticipate change and foresee
Reece, W. Gaming can also help stimulate
entrepreneurial activity within the destination community. One is increased community pride among
residents and the preservation of local customs (Vong MacCartney,
2005). (2006). Developing a tourism impact
attitude scale. Gambling is
currently only open to hotel guests, however locals will be allowed
to gamble too once the project is completed. The
Casino Bar marks the first time the Chinese government has
experimented with developing a gambling industry in the mainland
While the Chinese government does not permit casinos in the country
outside of Macau, Zhang – ranked by Forbes as one of the country’s
300 richest people in 2012 I with $600 million – said Hainan could
become an exception. The casino bar, with 50 gaming tables now, is
currently open only to hotel guests, but when the resort is
completed, local residents will be allowed in. This is because the industry provides economic benefits
to them directly. (1998). Resident
support for gambling as a tourism development strategy. Differences in community
participation in tourism development between China and the West. Chinese
Sociology Anthropology, 39(3), 9-27.
Lee, C., Kim, S., Kang, S. Increased traffic associated
with casino clusters in Las Vegas has created pollution levels far above
the maximum standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency
(York Lee, 2010). Berlin:
MrGehee. The theory and practice of Chinese grassroots
governance: Five models. There are, however, more variables that discriminate
between longtime and short-time residents, with destroy natural
environment, increase water pollution, and increase congestion as the
Um, S., Crompton, J. (1996). (2000). In the case of the United States, many casino employees
live in neighboring states (Chhabra, 2007a), so their earnings and taxes
are often leaked out as well. The sum of amounts of real wealth reduced is
the cost for those who are harmed” (Walker, 2007, p. Resident attitudes toward tourism
impacts in Hawaii. The questionnaire was written
in English and back translated to Mandarin Chinese. G., Nichols, M. Tourism Management, 2(3), 188-195.
Felsenstein D. (2004). Although some critics argue that indigenous people performing
their rituals and dances at resorts and casinos degrades the cultural
value of heritage traditions, others have noted how such activities can
help build solidarity and community esteem within a native society
(Mattern, 1996). Journal of Travel Research,
Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau. C. Likewise, in many countries, casinos
are staffed by foreign workers, many of whom send their earnings home as
perception of casino gambling’s effect on crime in new gambling
jurisdictions. (2004). L., Black, W.C. Outlook in the 21st century.
Department of Hotel Restaurant Institution, 21(2), 15-17.
Milman, A., Pizam, A. Furthermore, of the nine other
perception items that are more linked to environmental issues, city
center dwellers supported more the statement that tourism development
would destroy the physical environment ([bar.x] = 3.75, [bar.x] = 3.58,
t = 4,499, p = .034).
Studies on residents’ attitudes toward tourism have identified
factors that influence resident support for tourism. One of
the most common community perceptions regarding gambling is that it
results in increased crime rates, and there is some research evidence to
support this (Grinols Mustard, 2006; Reece, 2010). (1990). (2004). Residents’ perceptions research on the social
impacts of tourism. UNLV
Gaming Research Review Journal, 8(1), 13-30.
Browne, M., Kubasek, N. meals,
accommodation), have operated on Hainan Island, with operators arguing
they have the government’s blessing, while the government maintains
they are illegal and have cracked down on them on more than one
occasion. By 2015, the Asia Pacific market will reach
$79.3 billion from $34.3 billion in 2010, an 18.3 percent compound
annual increase” (Global Gaming Outlook, 2015).
Perceptions of casino development–tourism workers and non-tourism
Respondents were asked to rate their opinions of perception
statements on a 5-point Likert-type scale with 1 representing strongly
disagree and 5 strongly agree. Contested enclave
metageographies: The offshore islands of Taiwan. First, a series of independent
t-tests were computed to check for differences between groups. Pearce R. short-time residents
Destroy natural environment .482
Increase water pollution .469
Increase level of traffic congestion .424
Increase quantity of littering .392
Making living cost higher .356
Preserve local custom and culture -.340
Increase visitors crowding .340
Increase noise level .336
Increase opportunity for using recreational facilities .317
Improve quality of life .309
Increase occurrence of alcohol and drug abuse .303
Improve working conditions .301
Note: Pooled within-groups correlations between discriminating
variables and standardized canonical discriminant functions.
Variables ordered by absolute size of correlation within function
COPYRIGHT 2014 UNLV Gaming Research Review Journal
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Chhabra, D. Advocates argue that
gambling brings in much-needed regional income and jobs, while opponents
argue that it harms communities, families and individual lives (Wan,
Timothy, D. non-tourism workers, city-center
dwellers v. It was 29.2 percent in 2010, and it is
forecast to reach 43.4 percent in 2015 (Global Gaming Outlook, 2015).
Gambling has become an important part of the tourism economies of
several Asian countries since 1999, including South Korea, Cambodia,
Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Singapore,
Vietnam, and Macau, with several more countries considering adopting
casinos as a way of drawing foreign tourists (Ashton Korpi, 2008;
Kang Hsu, 2000). J. A detailed
analysis in Table 2 suggests that there is a belief that this
development base would very likely benefit the community economically,
but will have a negative impact socially and environmentally. (2004). Living costs increase for tourists and residents (Vong
MacCartney, 2005). Macau: Must Read
Jarowski and Gursoy (2004) studied resident attitudes in relation
to distance from tourist attractions and found that residents who live
close to the tourism resource base have a negative perception of the
benefits of tourism and are not likely to support tourism development,
probably because of fear that their ability to use the recreational
resources may be impaired by tourist crowds. UNLV Gaming Research Review Journal,
Murphy, P. In Tourism recreation and sustainability, edited
by S.F.I McCool and R.N. Retrieved on September 16, 2013, from
This study examined the perceptions of Sanya residents about the
proposed casino development and broader plans for gaming in their
community. While both
groups seem to agree on the negative externalities attributed to gaming
development, non-tourism residents were more likely to support this
activity as it might potentially improve working conditions, public
utilities and infrastructure linked to tourism, and increased
recreational opportunities for locals.
Gambling addictions are frequently to blame for social
deterioration, breakdown of families, loss of employment, drug and
alcohol use, prostitution, deterioration of mental and physical health,
and suicide (Blaszczynski Farrell, 1998; Chhabra, 2007b; Phillips,
2007; Wan 2012). Resident attitude
surveys have been used by planners and policymakers in order to gain
local support for tourism projects and initiatives. It is crucial, therefore, that residents are empowered in
decision making and that their perceptions and attitudes about tourism
are well understood by planners and destination managers. The spread of casinos and their role in
tourism development. P. In particular, the study evaluates the
difference in perception between tourism workers and non-tourism
workers, residents who live in the city center where the casino
development project is planned and those who live outside the city
center, and short-term residents and longterm residents. This study found differences in perception
between groups, and these need to be taken into consideration for
enlightened and strategic decision-making.
Nederhof, A. W. Australian casinos: Responsible
gambling initiatives, 1999-2008. The lack of
gaming opportunities in other parts of China has stimulated the growth
of casinos in Myanmar and Vietnam near the borders of China. The
results are presented in the structure matrix table. Residents
attitude surveys have been widely used in tourism to assess residents
attitudes towards tourism development (Davis, Allen Cosenza, 1988;
Garrod Fyall, 1998; Jurowski, 1994; Sheldon Abenoja, 2001).
Liu, C. Gaming
statistics. February 19, 2013. (2008, June 9). Freeman D. In this study, support for the
potential economic impacts is recognized by residents, while they also
seem to hold more negative perceptions regarding the social and
environmental impacts of casino gaming. M. This allowed the interviewer to acquire a
sizable sample of people who work and do not work in tourism.
Respondents were asked whether or not they were employed in tourism.
Once screened, they were briefly introduced to the research topic and
told the purpose of the study. Tourism Management,
H3: There is a difference in perception about gaming development
between I short-term residents and long-term residents.
Gaming as a source of entertainment and leisure has existed in Asia
for centuries. (1998). G. Nearby Japan, one of the most popular foreign destinations for
Chinese tourists, is also considering changing its laws banning casinos
and other forms of gambling as a means of improving the country’s
tourism economy. Resident attitudes toward tourism: A longitudinal
study of the Spey Valley, Scotland. Journal of
Gambling Studies, 14(4), 359-380.
Perceptions of casino development–city center and exurban
Mattern, M. (2008). The
variables which discriminate the most between these two groups are
improve working conditions, increase bankruptcy, and ‘increase
occurrence of crime’.
Braunlich, C. This is the proportion of the
total variance in the discriminant scores not explained by differences
among groups. A. In light of this change, national and provincial leaders
ought to heed the concerns of local residents, even though there is a
tradition in Chinese culture and under communism of conformity with
ruling classes (Farh, Zhong Organ, 2004). Changes in selected economic and social
indicators associated with the establishment of casinos in the City of
Detroit: A Case Study. Casinos, crime and
community costs. A baseline evaluation of casino
air quality after enactment of Nevada’s Clean Indoor Air Act.
Public Health Nursing, 27(2), 158-163.
Marshall, L. Arguments have also been made
that legalized gambling helps stem the flow of money out of the economy,
as locals will remain at home to play rather than spending their money
elsewhere (Gazel, 1998).
Goodman, R. Survey says Asia’s gaming revenue
likely to surpass that of US by 2012. (2008). R. Annals of the American Academy of Political and
Social Science, 556(1), 66-84.
The findings of this study suggest that residents are likely to
react differently depending on their length of residency. In O.
Moufakkir P. echinacities.
Saxion University of Applied Sciences
Easterling, D. Should we encourage expansion
of the casino gaming industry? Review of Business, 18(3), 9-14.
While Macau offers world class casinos, casino gaming is not
legalized in Mainland China. Measuring residents’
attachment levels in a host community. The interplay of elements affecting host
community resident attitudes toward tourism: A path analytic approach.
PhD dissertation. However, other
studies suggest that not all gaming destinations experience higher
levels of crime than non-gaming destinations (Moufakkir, 2005; Park
Ap, J. Despite the
proliferation of casinos and the popularity of gaming, casino gaming
remains a contested economic development activity. L., Boger, C. Northampton, MA: United States Gambling Study.
Recent residents believe that casinos would increase income,
preserve culture, improve employees working conditions, increase
recreational opportunities, and improve quality of life. (1995). (2010). Gambling tourism also has the potential to develop
recreational and cultural opportunities for community members, improve
educational and health-care facilities, and preserve heritage sites and
living cultures through the economic benefits of gaming (Braunlich,
1996; Browne Kubasek, 1997).
Ashton, H., Korpi, L. However, while both mean scores tend to show support for the
social perception statements, the means of non-tourism workers were
higher. Casino industry in Asia Pacific: Development,
operation, and impact. The first casino opened in South
Korea in 1967. This study assesses the perceptions of residents
about potential gaming development in their community. UNLV Gaming Research Review
Journal, 11 (2), 31-48.
Resident perceptions of gambling and tourism
Harrill (2004) proposed three ways of understanding people’s
attitudes towards casino development. Retrieved on September 16, 2013, from
HI: There is a difference in perception about gaming development
between I tourism workers and non-tourism workers.
Spears, D. Abingdon: Routledge.
Caneday, L., 8c Zeiger, J. Simulating the impacts of
gambling in a tourist location: Some evidence from Israel. The
only form of legal gambling is the increasingly popular lottery. Journal of Political Science, 4(2),
The social costs of gaming tourism can be summed up as “a
reduction in social real wealth. Many researchers use the
structure matrix correlations because they are considered more accurate
than the Standardized Canonical Discriminant Function Coefficients
(Agresti, 1996). Community-driven tourism planning and
residents’ preferences. This approach holds that individuals who do not
directly receive economic benefits from gambling are not expected to
support further tourism development (Harrill, 2004; Kaltenborn,
Andersen, Nellemann, Bjerke Thrane, 2008; Oviedo-Garcia,
Castellanos-Verdugo Martin-Ruiz, 2008). Community attitudes to tourism: A comparative
analysis. The economic impact of opening a gaming venue in
Australia. M., Paradis, T. Gaining residents support for tourism and planning.
International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(2), 95-109.
Sheldon, P. non-workers .847 115.722 25 .000
City-center v. Support for gaming depends on
how the host population perceives the impacts of casino development
(Giacopassi et al., 2001). non-city center dwellers
Opportunity to gamble at casino in Sanya .323
Destroy natural environment .314
Longtime residents v. (1996). Identifying these can help in
decision-making. (2012). A series of
hypotheses were tested. Several
studies have found that, the longer residents live in a place, the more
they oppose tourism (Harrill, 2004; Lankford Howard, 1994),
although some studies in different contexts have found different results
(McGehee Andereck, 2004). Journal of Travel Research, 32(3),
China Post (2013). (1985). (1978). Journal of Travel
Research, 50(3), 289-302.
Kaltenborn, B. In D. B., Organ, D.W. (1998). Legalized
casinos are widely viewed as a viable economic development tool (Hsu,
2006; Perdue, Long, Kang, 1995) and can effect economic,
environmental and socio-cultural changes in the destination community.
All three types of changes can be viewed as negative or positive
outcomes in the context of gambling tourism, and attitudes towards
gambling will depend on whether those changes are going to improve or
deteriorate one’s quality of life (Harrill, Uysal, Cardon, Vong
Moufakkir, O., Holecek, D. (1994). Some people re-mortgage their homes, get loans, or
liquidate their retirement funds to feed gaming addictions (Goldman,
Eadington, W. Public participation in
China: Sustainable urbanization and governance. The
dependent variables in this study are the 25 perception statements and
are based upon tourism workers v. Thus, Chinese wishing to play in casinos are required
to travel abroad or to Macau. More than half (51.6%)
were single, while 34.4% were married. The
rationale for undertaking resident attitude surveys during or after
tourism development in general or for a specific tourism development
strategy is to assess the perceived benefits and costs of the strategy
with the objective of controlling its direction towards a more favorable
outcome (Kwan McCartney, 2004). It should be noted that during data
collection tourism workers demonstrated more interest in this study than
did other residents.
Hospitality Business School
Goldman, A. Cole (Eds.),
Tourism, Power and Space (pp. M. The second approach comes from “growth machine” theory
where gambling is regarded as a driving force for a community’s
economic growth. Gendered social exchange theory variations
across the life span in casino settings. (2007). More research is needed among different stakeholders
on Hainan Island, including people in the resort areas and in other
parts of the island where tourism is not well developed, to understand
broader community perspectives on gambling and its future potential.
Perdue, R., Long, P., Allen, L. Following this, the market was dominated for many years
by the Paradise Group. London:
Mazon, T., Huete, R., Mantecon, A. A case series of 44
completed gambling-related suicides. The
literature argues that differences in perception exist between resident
One of the most obvious negative economic outcomes is leakage,
where money earned by casinos leaks out of the destination economy. (2005). (2009). (1993). (2012). 185). (1992). Burns (Eds.), Controversies in Tourism (pp.
125-143). They then propose that
tourism planners should take measures to protect the use of the resource
base for the locals or enhance the ability to use it. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Some studies find the longer residents live in a destination the
more they oppose tourism (Lankford Howard, 1994; McCool
Martin, 1994; Harrill, 2004). Residents’ attitudes to
proposed tourism development. “To some extent, the approval of gaming on Chinese soil is
inevitable,” said Gary Pinge, analyst at Macquarie Group in Hong
Kong. As Table 1 indicates, most
respondents were between 18 and 45 years old. A lambda of 1.00 occurs when observed group means are
equal (all the variance is explained by factors other than difference
between those means), while a small lambda occurs when within-group
variability is small compared to the total variability. The Discriminant Analysis shows that only a
few variables discriminate between the sample groups. It suggests that if people receive more
benefits than costs from an exchange, they will more likely be involved
in it. Owing largely to the potential threat of neighboring states
and territories allowing large-scale casino gaming, the Chinese
government is considering allowing limited casino development in
well-established resort areas, such as Hainan. More precisely, 15.6% strongly disagree, 18.8% disagree,
30.5% agree, 9% strongly agree, and 26% are undecided. (1994). The third approach is
“social exchange theory”, which focuses on resource exchanges
between individuals and groups. (2005). Matsu population jumps after casino referendum.
The China Post, 28 January, 2013. (2002). (1996). The social, economic, and
environmental costs of tourism to a gambling community as perceived by
its residents. One of the
purposes of DA is to investigate differences between groups on the basis
of case attributes, indicating which attributes contribute most to group
separation. Journal of Travel Research, 44(2), 177-187.
Dallen J. American Indian Culture and Research Journal,
Previous studies on resident perceptions of tourism and gaming
development have identified economic, social, and environmental
dimensions using measurement scales consisting of 10 to 30 items (Pizam
1978; Liu Var 1986; Perdue et al., 1990; Ap Crompton, 1993;
Giacoppacssi, Stitt Nichols, 2001; Spears Boger, 2003; Lee,
Kim Kang, 2003; Kwan McCartney, 2005). (1981). The table identifies the
largest absolute correlations associated with each discriminant
Gambling-based controversies can help destination planners and
managers learn from the mistakes and successes of others. A similar study profiling clusters by demographic
variables “could help authorities and casino operators label
various stakeholder groups at various stages of gaming development”
(p. (2006). (1995). L., Lee, K. A., Rosenbaum, M. , Kang, Y. Journal of Travel
Research 16(4), 8-12.
Casino gaming has been touted as a means of stimulating the tourism
economy (Goodman, 1994; Piner Paradis, 2004; Henderson, 2006).
Nevertheless, controversial issues arise whenever and wherever casino
development is considered (Janes Collison, 2004, Kang et al.,
2008; Moufakkir, 2002; Roehl, 1999; Vong, 2008). Development of the gambling attitude
scales: Preliminary findings. (2000). These
two variables and where inhabitants live in relation to the city are
important variables in the context of Sanya City and are examined in
this study. Inside Asian gaming. Taiwan,
too, where gambling is still illegal on the mainland but legislative
maneuvers are beginning to allow it on the peripheral islands
(Baldacchino Tsai, 2014), earlier considered building casinos
offshore on its Penghu Islands to attract players from China (Timothy
Tsai, 2008), although a 2009 public referendum in Penghu voted
down the plan (Baldacchino Tsai, 2014). Asian countries are awakening to the
potential of commercial gaming and finding innovative models to attract
players from across Asia and the globe, as many countries believe
gambling to be a lucrative source of revenue. New support (2012-2013) in
Taiwan’s Matsu Islands for the development of a casino there may
result in the establishment of a large-scale casino, and there are other
options being mulled around for casino development on Taiwan’s
peripheral islands and near the international airport (China Post,
2013). The purpose for conducting such a
survey prior to the proposed development is either to adopt the strategy
as a benefit to the community or reject it and select a more favorable
one. The case for other
perception items is also similar, in that short-time residents seem to
score higher on statements with positive connotations than those that
support a negative externality (see Table 5).
Chhabra, D. The hypotheses
here posited that residents who had been living in Sanya for five years
or longer were less likely to be positive about gaming development than
more recent residents. L., Zhong, C. (1990). Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, East Lansing,
Michigan: Michigan State University.
Handelskade 75, Deventer
Oviedo-Garcia, M., Castellanos-Verdugo, M., Martin-Ruiz, D.
(2008). Planners and
investors are exploring ways to allow gaming for tourism development on
the holiday island of Hainan. The hypothesis was
based on the assumption that respondents who reside in the city center,
where gaming development is proposed, were more likely to express
negative perceptions of casinos because of the potential negative and
positive attributes that are associated with tourism development in
general. Factors predicting rural
Table 6 provides one way in the DA results of indicating the
relative importance of the predictors. (2001). S. Long-time
residents, however, think that the opening of casinos would increase the
cost of living in the community, alcohol and drug-use, visitor crowding,
litter in the streets, traffic congestion, noise and pollution levels,
as well as destroy the natural environment. Host community reactions:
A cluster analysis. Community leader
perceptions of the social and economic impacts of Indian gaming. (2008). London: Routledge.
Other researchers have studied the influence of inhabitants’
length of residence in the destination and whether or not they are
employed in tourism on their perceptions of tourism development. Journal of Business Research, 44(3), 223-229. . Beyond the rhetoric of
sustainable tourism? Tourism Management, 19(3), 199-212.
Timothy, D. I. A small lambda
indicates that group means appear to differ (Hair et al., 1998). The questionnaire
was piloted on 13 respondents.
Janes, P. These significant
values indicate that the group means appear to differ (Table 6).
Phillips, D. Perceptions of casino
impacts: A Korean longitudinal study. Journal of Travel Research, 44(2005),
Vong, F., MacCartney, G. The term wealth is not only money, it
is the individual value. Tourism impacts: The social costs of the
destination community as perceived by its residents. Betting on casino tourism in Asia:
Singapore’s integrated resorts. Eyes on casino gaming in Sanya: Making the case
First Mainland “Cashless Casino Concept” Opens in Sanya Resort
The Casino Bar recently opened at the Mangrove Tree Resort in Sanya
Bay. (2006). Resident
perception of the environmental impacts of tourism. Casinos are the next big thing. In 2002 Macau had 11 casinos; it counts 35 casinos
today (Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau, 2013). Wilks’ Lambda is the ratio of within-groups sums
of squares to the total sums of squares. Butler, Contemporary
issues in tourism development (pp. (1988): Social impacts of tourism on
central Florida. (2009) found that respondents whose
work was linked to tourism were also more critical about tourism
development than their counterparts, because the former have a deeper
knowledge of the potential negative impacts of tourism in general, in
addition to their economic dependency on this economic base.
Gazel, R. Anatolia, 18(1), 145-152.
Resident perceptions about gaming development
Wiley J. Table 4 shows that while all respondents appear to be positive
about the potential economic benefits of gaming, there were no
statistically significant differences between the two sample groups.
With regard to the social statements, both sets of respondents believe
this type of tourism development would create negative social costs,
such as increased use of pawn shops, crime, gambling addiction and
prostitution. This study aims to take a
pre-emptive approach to survey the situation before casinos are built.
In short, successful tourism development depends on the cooperation of
local communities (Lankford, 1994; Murphy, 1985). L., Farrell, E.
(1998). Casinos are
well-known magnets for other businesses that open to cater to the needs
of gamers (Walker, 2007; Moufakkir, 2002). In China, these results bear
unique and interesting implications. For the most part, decisions are
made not at local levels, but rather at national and provincial levels
and typically imposed on lower-order governments and communities
(Ensereink Koppenjan, 2007; He, 2003). (2007). Retrieved on November 25,
2007, from http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/stories/sun/2006/
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Box 1. Respondents, however, were assured confidentiality and
anonymity, a strategy that reduces social desirability bias. The
associated significance value indicates whether the difference is
the negative and positive impacts of casinos, it is certain that
communities considering gaming would have some concerns about its
influences. P. For instance, Macau has a
gaming history dating back to the 19th century and was a monopoly-based
jurisdiction with Stanley Ho’s company holding the sole concession
for casino gaming from 1962 to 2002. Not all casinos
are equally successful business ventures, and not all casino developers
keep their promises to the community (Moufakkir, 2005).
Kwan and McCartney (2005) have developed clusters based on
residents’ beliefs about gaming in Macao. Journal of Travel Research, 30(2), 45-49.
Not all residents hold the same perceptions. Positive attributes, including improved quality of life,
preservation of local culture, or increased community pride, all scored
Lee, C-K., Kang, S., Long, P., Reisinger, Y. Annals of Tourism Research, 15(2), 191-204.
Data were processed with SPSS 20. The local government
is very supportive of the project, and is in the process of making
changes to the current regulations that prohibit gambling. Resident attitudes to tourism
in North Wales. Support for gaming development depends on perceived
economic, social, and environmental benefits and costs (Canaday
Zeiger, 1991; Carmichael, 2000). In many Asian cultures, betting-type games are an
integral part of peoples lives. Non-tourism residents were more likely to agree that casinos
would increase crime ([bar.x] = 3.85 compared to [bar.x] -3.48, t =
16,809, p = .001), gambling addiction, divorces, and bankruptcies.
However, tourism workers were more likely to think that gaming would
increase community pride ([bar.x] =2.92, t = 7,847, p =.005). Problem gaming within a Chinese speaking community. (2000). A residents attitude study about
gaming impact in Macau by (Kwan McCartney, 2005) resulted in a
response rate of 74.6%. The economic impacts of casino gambling at the
state and local levels. Resident support for
tourism development. It has been recognized
that tourism development is usually justified on the basis of perceived
benefits and costs. In many small gambling communities, tourist
traffic exceeds local traffic during high seasons, resulting in thick
congestion, driving hazards, noise and increased air pollution (Perdue
et al., 1995).
Kang, S., Hsu, C. (2012). Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 763-784.
Harrill, R., Uysal, M., Cardon, P.W., Vong, F., Dioko, L.
(2011). Casino gaming and crime:
Comparisons among gaming counties and other places. Journal of Travel and Tourism
Marketing, 17(4), 45-62.
Reuters. (2004). (1984). Tourism Management, 29(4), 681-694.
Andereck, K. Legalized gambling as a strategy for economic
development. Annals of Tourism Research, 13(2), 193-214.
Positioning casino gaming development in the minds of residents
does not necessarily mean that it will be a success. G. Discriminant Analysis
was used to investigate differences between groups on the basis of the
attributes of the cases, indicating which attributes contribute most to
group separation (Hair, Anderson, Tatham Black, 1998).
Limitations and suggestions for future research
In 2010, Macau attracted 27 million visitors, of which about 75%
were from mainland China and Hong Kong, many of whom go for gaming
purposes. The negative items scored
higher among longtime residents, including an increase in alcoholism and
drug use, where longtime inhabitants scored a mean of 3.71 compared to
3.51 among the others (f = 6,130, p = 0.14). L., Mustard, D. jewelry, artwork) or services (e.g. Resident attitude
surveys can enlighten policy and development decisions (Harril, 2004).
Other studies suggest that resident attitudes about tourism may be
affected by the distance between their homes and the main tourism
activities (Murphy, 1981; Mason Cheyne 2000). A Framework for monitoring
community impacts of tourism. The social, economic and environmental
impacts of casino gaming in Macao: The community leader perspective.
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(5), 737-755.
Moufakkir, O. Generally, like factor
loadings, 0.30 is seen as the cut-off between important and less
important variables (Hair et al., 1998). (2002). Therefore, it is important
to understand residents’ attitudes toward gambling from the
perspective of both benefits and costs to the destination. Residents perceptions and
attitudes towards Native American Gaming (NAG) in Kansas: Demographics,
policies, and future development. (1987). Respondents (residents) were randomly
intercepted by the interviewer in the streets, parks, hotels,
restaurants and at tourist attractions, and asked to participate in the
study. The Powwow as a public arena for negotiating
unity and diversity. They also found
that those who live far from the tourism attraction were more concerned
with the negative environmental impacts of the attractions. Their success may depend on whether local casinos
constitute a “destination casino”, which offers gambling
within a mega-resort context with accommodations, retail, meeting
facilities, and dining and entertainment opportunities. Property values sometimes increase so much that
it results in the displacement of locals who can no longer afford to buy
land or pay their property taxes (Marshall Rudd, 1996; Wiley
Walker, 2011). The residents’ perspective in tourism
research: A review and synthesis. P. In an exploratory study about
Macao residents’ perceptions of the impact of gaming development
(Kwan McCartney, 2005), perception items with the highest score
are similar to those in this study, and relate to economic benefits;
whereas those with a lower score relate to environmental and social
Jurowski, C. Cosenza, J. Stakeholder views of
legalized casino gambling in Taiwan: Taiwanese student perceptions.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 6(1), 77-94.
Omar Moufakkir, Ph.D.
Getz, D. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13(1), 41-53.
According to Koh (2004), the Asian share of world revenue from
gaming was 22.4 percent in 2004. Here, the Lambda of 0.847, 0.940, and 0.914 are large,
which suggests that the group differences are small. (1988).
Segmenting local resident by their attitudes, interest, and opinions
toward tourism. (1999). Annals of Tourism
Research, 14, 17-37.
Piner, J. Notes on the social exchange theory.
Revista Encontros Cientificos–Tourism Management Studies,
Encontros Cientificos n.5 Faro 2009. (1998).
Multivariate Analysis. (2006). V. Political Geography,
Understanding resident attitudes toward tourism is valuable because
the community can either be supportive or antagonistic (Getz, 1994).
Community support is vital to tourism’s success because tourism
uses the destination environment and culture as a resource, and the
people are an important part of the product (Murphy, 1985; Timothy 1999;
2007). A theoretical
analysis of host community resident reactions to tourism. In particular, the study evaluates the difference in
perception between tourism workers and non-tourism workers, effects of
proximity to the proposed casino location, and community members’
length of residence in Sanya on their perceptions of the development.
Results may help planners and policymakers with their decisions. Annals of Tourism Research,
At the time of writing, Macau is the only place in China where
casinos are legal. Other forms of “illegal leakage”
also exist, such as tax evasion and money laundering (Eadington, 1999).
Thus, overall only a few variables in the model appear to be
important discriminators between the groups, with only three for tourism
workers versus their counterparts, namely improve working condition,
increase bankruptcy, and increased crime, and two for city and non-city
center dwellers. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(2), 371-391.
Liu, C. Management of
Environmental Quality, 18(4), 459-474.
Previous studies suggest that residents who work in tourism are
more likely than other residents in the same community to support
tourism because of its potential economic benefits (Fredline
Faulkner, 2000; Haralambopoulos Pizam, 1996; McGehee
Andereck, 2004). As Chinese spend
their money in new casinos across Asia from the Philippines to
Vietnam, pressure is growing on Beijing to keep more gamblers at
home. The interviewer made it clear that the
statements were hypothetical. Community support is critical to the success of tourism
because it uses the destination as part of the product.
Pizam, A. “With regional markets already vying for a share of the
Chinese gambling wallet, unless China brings gaming onto its own
shores, it will not only lose tax revenues to other countries, but
also the multiplier effect from the consumption spend (Source:
Kareem, J. UNLV Gaming Research
and Review Journal, 9(1), 15-28.
Roehl, W. 127-143). 10). (2004). On the other hand, longtime residents believe more
strongly that casinos would increase the cost of living (x= 3.86
compared to x= 3.65, with, t = 8,487, p =.004).
Walker, D. Casino revenues and retail
property values: The Detroit case. Residents support for tourism development will depend on their
perception of the benefits and costs resulting from this activity (Ap,
1990; 1992). Contemporary
Economic Policy, 28(2), 145-161.
eChinacities. Utilizing local concerns
and recommendations by the people who live in the destination will build
goodwill and help tourism to develop in ways that are in line with local
mores and social networks.
Jurowski, C., Gursoy, D. Table 5 suggests that while both groups seem to
agree on the potential economic benefits, recent residents tend to agree
more with the statement that residents’ income would probably
increase from casino development (x = 3.51 compared to x = 3.34, with, t
= 3,847, p =.050). Wallingford: CABI, pp. The present
instrument was based on 25 attitude items gleaned from the resident
attitude and gaming literature, largely derived from a comprehensive
list of gaming impact issues used by Lee, Kim and Kang (2003). When addicted
gamblers lose, crime wins. You bet there’s a problem. (1994). non-tourism workers
Improve working condition .466
Increase bankruptcy .403
Increase occurrence of crime .362
City center dwellers v. J. A. (2007). Also, as stated
earlier, tourism workers were more responsive to the questionnaire than
their counterparts, and therefore responses may suffer from social
desirability. In response,
there is a growing literature on destination residents’ perceptions
of tourism. (1996). An Introduction to Categorical Data Analysis.
Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Moufakkir, O. Review of Economics and Statistics, 88(1), 28-45.
Timothy, D. Street surveys took place in
mornings and afternoons. Journal of Travel Research, 39(1), 27-36.
Overall Sample Demographic Characteristics (N=711)
Years lived in Sanya
Less than 5 years 52.2%
5 years longer 47.8%
High school or less 15.6%
Junior college 18.1%
Postgraduate or over 13.4%
Below 18 5.3%
46-55 9 1%
Over 75 0.4%
Skilled worker 8.9%
Marketing sales 12.0%
Administrative mgt 7.9%
Technical staff 8.3%
Public servant 9.1%
Where they live
City center 61.1%
Outside city center 38.9%
Less than RMB 3,000 49.8%
RMB 3,000-5,000 24.2%
RMB 5,001-7,000 15.0%
RMB 7,001-10,000 5.9%
Over 10,000 5.1%
Residents’ Attitudes towards Casino Development in Sanya
Increase tourist spending 3.69
Increase employment 3.83
Increase tax revenues 4.10
Improve infrastructure 3.35
Improve working conditions 2.91
Increase income of residents 3.43
Improve quality of life 2.86
Preserve local custom and culture 2.58
Increase pride of local residents 2.78
Increase recreational opportunities 3.70
Increase use of pawn shops 3.86
Increase occurrence of crime 3.68
Increase addiction to gambling 3.65
Increase destruction of family 3.52
Increase occurrence of prostitution 3.72
Increase occurrence of divorce 3.40
Increase bankruptcy 3.64
Increase alcoholism and drug abuse 3.61
Making living cost higher 3.77
Increase visitors crowding 4.17
Increase quantity of littering 3.87
Increase level of traffic congestion 3.78
Destroy natural environment 3.67
Increase noise levels 3.83
Increase water pollution 3.64
Note: 1=Strongly disagree, 5=Strongly agree
Perceptions of Tourism Workers and Non-tourism
Workers towards Gaming Development in Sanya
workers workers Total t-test p-value
Increase tourist spending 3.6 3.76 3.69 2.779 .096
Increase employment 3.78 3.88 3.83 1.257 .263
Increase tax revenues 4.02 4.16 4.10 2.863 .091
Increase resident income 3.41 3.44 3.43 .119 .730
Improve quality of life 2.90 2.83 2.86 .519 .472
Preserve local customs 2.64 2.52 2.58 1.751 .186
Increase community pride 2.92 2.67 2.78 7.847 .005
Improve infrastructure 3.20 3.48 3.35 9.239 .002
Improve working conditions 2.64 3.12 2.91 27.774 .001
Increase recreational 3.81 3.61 3.70 5.520 .019
Increase use of pawn shops 3.87 3.86 3.86 .009 .924
Increase cost of living 3.73 3.80 3.77 .841 .359
Increase crime 3.48 3.85 3.68 16.809 .001
Increase gambling addiction 3.51 3.76 3.65 7.251 .007
Increase family dissolution 3.42 3.60 3.52 4.468 .035
Increase prostitution 3.72 3.72 3.72 .001 .976
Increase divorce rate 3.31 3.48 3.40 3.880 0.49
Increase bankruptcies 3.42 3.81 3.64 20.863 .001
Increase alcoholism drug 3.54 3.66 3.61 2.033 .154
Increase visitor crowding 4.20 4.15 4.17 .387 .534
Increase litter 3.90 3.84 3.87 .477 .490
Increase traffic congestion 3.77 3.79 3.78 .037 .848
Destroy natural 3.66 3.68 3.67 .066 .797
Increase noise 3.84 3.83 3.83 .014 .906
Increase water pollution 3.64 3.65 3.64 .023 .880
Perceptions of Residents who Live in the City Center and
Residents Living Outside the City toward Gaming Development
center city Total t-test p-value
Increase tourist spending 3.67 3.71 3.69 .140 .708
Increase employment 3.80 3.89 3.83 1.206 .272
Increase tax revenues 4.12 4.06 4.10 .603 .438
Increase resident income 3.36 3.53 3.43 3.550 .060
Improve quality of life 2.83 2.90 2.86 .479 .489
Preserve local customs 2.50 2.68 2.58 3.960 .047
Increase community pride 2.77 2.80 2.78 .133 .715
Improve public 3.32 3.41 3.35 .999 .318
Improve working 2.84 3.01 2.91 3.346 .068
Increase recreational 3.69 3.72 3.70 .091 .763
Increase use of pawn 3.90 3.81 3.86 1.254 .263
Increase cost of living 3.75 3.79 3.77 .284 .594
Increase crime 3.65 3.72 3.68 .573 .449
Increase gambling 3.69 3.59 3.65 1.199 .274
Increase family 3.54 3.49 3.52 .244 .621
Increase prostitution 3.70 3.75 3.72 .398 .528
Increase divorce 3.42 3.39 3.40 .118 .731
Increase bankruptcies 3.61 3.67 3.64 .381 .537
Increase alcoholism 3.62 3.60 3.61 .035 .851
Increase visitor 4.22 4.11 4.17 2.099 .148
Increase litter 3.93 3.79 3.87 2.985 .084
Increase traffic 3.84 3.70 3.78 2.973 .085
Destroy natural 3.75 3.56 3.67 4.499 .034
Increase noise 3.86 3.79 3.83 .664 .415
Increase water pollution 3.69 3.58 3.64 1.433 .232
Perceptions of Recent and Longtime Residents
towards Gaming Development in Sanya
residents residents Total
Increase tourist spending 3.71 3.66 3.69
Increase employment 3.83 3.84 3.83
Increase tax revenues 4.09 4.11 4.10
Increase resident income 3.51 3.34 3.43
Improve quality of life 2.97 2.74 2.86
Preserve local customs culture 2.70 2.45 2.58
Increase community pride 2.80 2.76 2.78
Improve public infrastructure 3.33 3.38 3.35
Improve working conditions 3.02 2.79 2.91
Increase recreational 3.81 3.59 3.70
Increase use of pawn shops 3.86 3.87 3.86
Increase cost of living 3.65 3.89 3.77
Increase crime 3.62 3.75 3.68
Increase gambling addiction 3.60 3.70 3.65
Increase family dissolution 3.46 3.58 3.52
Increase prostitution 3.66 3.78 3.72
Increase divorce 3.36 3.45 3.40
Increase bankruptcies 3.60 3.68 3.64
Increase alcoholism drug use 3.51 3.71 3.61
Increase visitor crowding 4.07 4.28 4.17
Increase litter 3.74 4.01 3.87
Increase traffic congestion 3.64 3.93 3.78
Destroy natural environment 3.51 3.84 3.67
Increase noise 3.72 3.96 3.83
Increase water pollution 3.48 3.82 3.64
Increase tourist spending .258 .612
Increase employment .010 .922
Increase tax revenues .063 .803
Increase resident income 3.847 .050
Improve quality of life 6.391 .012
Preserve local customs culture 7.740 .006
Increase community pride .210 .647
Improve public infrastructure .287 .593
Improve working conditions 6.041 .014
Increase recreational 6.740 .010
Increase use of pawn shops .027 .870
Increase cost of living 8.487 .004
Increase crime 2.010 .157
Increase gambling addiction 1.176 .278
Increase family dissolution 1.705 .192
Increase prostitution 2.072 .150
Increase divorce .967 .326
Increase bankruptcies .830 .362
Increase alcoholism drug use 6.130 .014
Increase visitor crowding 7.732 .006
Increase litter 10.267 .001
Increase traffic congestion 12.043 .001
Destroy natural environment 15.526 .001
Increase noise 7.547 .006
Increase water pollution 14.718 .001
Wilks’ Lambdas for Discriminant Analyses
Lambda square df Sig.
Tourism workers v. Gaming in the USA:
Historical development, controversies and current status. (2001). S. Las Vegas Sun. The most discriminating
variables between these two groups are destroy natural environment,
increase water pollution, ‘increase traffic congestion’, and
“increase littering. Implications for
planning and communication are given.
Besides residents’ attitudes, the successes or failures of
casinos may be determined by management practices, marketing activities,
competition, and government regulations. The relationship between
residents’ attitudes toward tourism and tourism development
options. M. The American Gaming Association estimated that
casino gambling revenues in Asia will likely surpass those in the USA in
the next several years, measuring in the billions of dollars annually
He, B. Retrieved on September 16,
2013, from http://www. Residents’ attitudes toward tourism
development: A literature review with implications for tourism planning.
Journal of Planning Literature, 18(3), 251-266.
Kassinove, J. Casino jobs
are often associated with higher salaries than other service-sector
jobs, and gaming taxes are seen as a “painless” way of
increasing taxes with less local opposition than increases in general
sales tax (Walker, 2007, p. Quality of life issues in a casino
Business Review, (February), 70.
Perdue, R. The casino and online gaming market to 2015.
Retrieved on September 26, 2013, from www.pwc.com/em
Harrill, R. The case for supporting gaming
will then rest on enlightened decisions and policies based not only on
the benefits and costs of the proposed gaming development, but also on
the consideration of other economic alternatives. If further development produces apparent benefits, residents
attitudes might also change. Malaysia opened its Genting Highlands casino in
1971. This descriptive technique successively identifies the
linear combination of attributes known as canonical discriminant
functions (equations) which contribute maximally to group separation. Residents’
attitudes may change following the life cycle and development stage of
the economic activity or destination, as well as its successes or
failures. (1994). (2000). (2014). Resident
attitude surveys are crucial in providing decision-making data about the
feelings of residents. In addition, the paper aims to identify which
perceptions diverge most between sample groups. The focus of these should be how gaming will contribute to the
working conditions of tourism employees and how crime and other social
ills will be mitigated. (1994). Participatory planning: A view of tourism in
Indonesia. C., Mccartney, C. m, designed to look like a casino and
features the same licensing practices and rules as casinos in
Macau. Tourism Management, 24(1), 45-55.
Carmichael, B. An assessment of crime volume following
casino gaming development in the city of Detroit. Resident attitudes towards gaming and tourism development in
Macao: Growth machine theory as a context for identifying supporters and
opponents. A., Walker, D. B. Resident attitudes in a
mature destination: The case of Waikiki. J., Var, T. Elevated suicide levels associated with
legalized gambling. Art work from Zhangs
Beijing art gallery is also available for purchase. Harill (2004) identified socioeconomic
factors, special factors, economic dependency, residents and community
typologies as important factors that provide basis for explaining how
resident attitudes towards the impacts of tourism development are
We were not able to provide a response rate to judge the
representativeness of the sample. Community attachment and
attitudes toward tourism development. J. H. (1998). 72). 199-216). The biggest
divide in perception exists between recent and long-time residents.
Slight differences also appear between tourism workers and non-tourism
Wong, I. (2003). (2010). Journal of Travel Research, 34(3), 46-56.
Haralambopoulos, N., Pizam, A. (2013). When players win,
they receive “Mangrove” points that can be used to buy products
available in the casino such as an iPad 3G or a Rimowa suitcase.
Once luxury brands open outlets within the resort, customers will
be able to spend their points in those stores. Perceived impacts of
tourism: The case of Samos. According to Murphy (1985), “the degree to which a
community’s attitude and perception seem favorable is the degree to
which they can be expected to be supportive of tourism development (p.
85)”. This can help in selecting appropriate marketing or
educational strategies targeting different stakeholders, with the
objective to reinforce or alter perceptions.
Farh, J. Tourism Management, 22(5), 435
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