Eyes on casino gaming in China: residents’ attitudes towards pre-casino development in Sanya.

m88 non-city center dwellers, and longtime residents v.

short-time residents. Tourism Review International,

10(3), 169-179.

As noted earlier, casinos are becoming a more important part of the

tourism economy, but the development of casino gaming is not without

controversy (Moufakkir Holecek, 2012). Although the Chinese are known for their propensity for gaming

(Blaszczynski, Huynh, Dumlao, Farrell, 1998), casino gaming is

illegal in Mainland China (Mainland China does not include Hong Kong,

Macau and Taiwan). Macau bets future on China: Asian highrollers.

Casino City Newsletter, 3(86), 2.

Giacopassi, D., Stitt, B. Japanese. These include the potential for

economic gain, environmental concerns, socioeconomic status, feelings

about the community, extent of their use of tourism resources, and

perceptions of the impacts of tourism on quality of life (Carmichael,

2000; Lankford Howard, 1994; McCool Martin, 1994; Urn

Crompton, 1987). Journal of

Travel Research, 37(2), 145-155.

411 N. Justice Professional, 14, 151-70.

Faulkner, B. Journal of

Travel Research, 34(3), 3-11.

College of Public Programs

Blaszczynski, A., Farrell, E. UNLV Gaming Research and Review

Journal, 7(2), 13-24.

H2: There is a difference in perception about gaming development

between I residents who live in city center close to the location of the

proposed casino I and those who live outside the city-center.

Jurowski, C., Uysal, M., Williams, D. Current media reports, however, indicate a

growing interest by the Chinese government in establishing casinos in

the Hainan Province. (2011). Retrieved on March 19, 2014, from

http://www.chinapost.com.tw/taiwan/local/offshoreislands/2013/01/28/368728/Matsu-population.htm Davis, D., Allen, J. A. L., Collison, J. (2011). Annals of Tourism Research, 21(1), 121-139.

Baldacchino, G., Tsai, H. Nevertheless, Mazon et al. The first approach is community

attachment”, which refers to an extent or pattern of social

participation and integration in community life (McCool Martin,

1994). Casino

establishment in neighboring countries not only means greater

competition for gamers dollars in the region (Moufakkir, 2002), but also

the likelihood for casinos to serve only local demand. Retrieved on September 16, 2013,

from http://NewsVOAcom

The structure matrix table (Table 7) shows the corelations of each

variable with each discriminant function. (2003). Distance effect on

residents’ attitudes towards tourism. (2007b). L., Vogt, C. N.. (2007). Tourism Management, 5(1), 40-47.

Like all forms of mass tourism, gambling tourism can result in

environmental problems, such as ecological degradation and pollution

(Lee, Kang, Long Reisinger, 2010). Empowerment and stakeholder participation in

tourism destination communities. These Pearson coefficients are

structure coefficients, or discriminant loadings. (2007a). Much participatory planning

and development in China has been, and continues to be, tokenistic with

I higher-order officials consulting residents and lower-order

administrators without seriously taking their concerns to heart,

although this appears to be on the cusp of change (Bao Sun, 2007;

Timothy, 2007). Traditional gambling in

Asia included sports betting, animal races, cards, and cockfights.

Asians used to gamble at home, on the streets, and in some traditional

simplified versions of casinos (Hsu, 2006). (2007). (1985). First mainland casino

“concept opens” in Sanya Resort. (1987). New York: Haworth.

McCool, S., Martin, S. Resident

perception of the impact of limited-stakes community-based casino gaming

in mature gaming communities. J. F., Anderson, E., Tatham, R. H. A discriminant

analysis was used to find out which of the perceptions variables

discriminate the most between the sample groups. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 27(4),


Wan, Y. Results suggest

that more attention should be given to the environmental aspects of

casino gaming.

Casino City. (2011). In A. (2001). Casinos, communities and sustainable

economic development. A

self-administered questionnaire, mail, or Internet survey, or a

combination of survey modes may offer less contaminated results

(Nederhof, 1985). T. R., Long, P. All rights reserved.

Vong, F. K., Lee, C., Yoon, Y., Long, P. Despite the proliferation of casinos,

gambling is still a controversial activity in many places, including

China. M. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(3), 503-526.

York, N. They pointed out that

concerned residents can be categorized into optimists, reserved

optimists, neutral, and skeptics. Casino gaming can be viewed as an economic development

in different guises (Felsenstein Freeman, 1998). Sanya’s population is more than 524,000

comprising some 20 nationalities, including Han, Li, Miao, and Hui.

Different populations may have different perceptions. The questionnaire was administered by a trained interviewer.

After completion of a questionnaire the interviewer would intercept the

next person in the way. (2004). Introduction to casino

and gaming operations. The SPSS output is

enormous, so only the most relevant information is indicated here.

Excerpts from the media (example in Box 1) support this claim.

Blume, C. The bar is 30,000 sq. In addition, Cronbach’s Alpha for the present study

is .825, which also validates the reliability of the instrument used.

The survey also elicited information about demographic characteristics,

participants’ length of residence, and whether or not respondents

reside in the city center (including the bay resort areas) where the

gaming development project was proposed. (2003). T. Abenoja, T. “Going forward, Macau and Singapore will continue to fuel

growth in Asia Pacific during the next few years, while other countries

in the region may look to encourage growth in casino gaming to gain

tourism and tax dollars. (2010).

Residents’ perceptions of casino impacts: A comparative study.

Tourism Management, 31(2), 189-201.

Respondents were asked the generic question “to what extent do

you agree or disagree with casino development in the city? The results

indicate that the greatest majority agrees while about one-fourth were

undecided. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14(2),


Given the Chinese interest in gaming and increased travel abroad to

gamble, the government has been assessing the feasibility of allowing

casinos in a few locations in China besides Macau. W. (1999). Gambling

studies show that socio-demographic characteristics, community

attachment, length of residence, and home ownership influence peoples

attitudes and perceptions of gambling and their support for it (Roehl,

1999; Vong, 2008; Kang, Lee, Yoon Long, 2008; Kassinove, 1998).

This study seeks to examine whether there are differences in perceptions

between tourism workers and non-tourism workers, city center dwellers

and those who live outside the city center, and long-term residents and

short-term residents. J. The questionnaires were randomly

collected from July to September 2011. Perceptions are influenced by socio-demographic

characteristics (Spears Boger, 2003), the length and place of

residence (Sheldon Var, 1984), and personal factors (Pizam, 1978;

Kwam McCarthy, 2005). S. Tourism dependence

and host community perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 17(4), 610-616.

Garrod, F., Fyall, A. Central Ave., Suite 550

Prentice, R. London: Gambling Compliance.

The Effects of Gaming on Destination Communities

Koh, W. (2008).Resident attitudes towards mountain second-home

tourism development in Norway: The effects of environmental attitudes.

Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(6), 664-680.

The literature is divided on the socio-economic benefits and costs

a casino brings to a community (Moufakkir Holecek, 2012). Journal of Real Estate Finance and

Economics, 42(1), 99-114.

Global Gaming Outlook. Casinos, hotels, and crime. (2000). Some 59.1% were childless, and

most were university graduates. E. Timothy, Ph.D.

Hyperinflation is another undesirable economic outcome of casino

based tourism. However, for the time being, gamblers do not win cash

prizes; their winnings can only go toward their stay in the hotel

or purchase of luxury goods at the hotel store. 61.1% resided in the city center; the

rest lived outside the city center.

Henderson, J. K. These include: the

potential for economic gain, environmental attitudes, socioeconomic

status, feelings held about the community, extent of the use of the

tourism resource base, perceptions of the ability to control the

development of tourism, length of residence, and perceptions of the

impact of tourism on the quality of life (Ap, 1990; Carmichael, 2000;

Faulkner Tideswell, 1997; Jurowski, 1994; Jurowski, Uysal

Williams, 1997; Lankford Howard, 1994; Liu, Sheldon Var,

1986; McCool Martin, 1994; Prentice, 1993; Um Compton,

1987). The American National

Gambling Impacts Study Commission (NGISC, 1999) unanimously acknowledged

the complexity of gambling issues, and noted that “along with the

real benefits of gambling come equally undeniable and significant

costs” (p. Beyond hardcore gambling:

Understanding why Mainland Chinese visit casinos in Macau. Journal of Social Psychology, 15, 263-280.

Hair, J. Retrieved on September 14, 2013,

from http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/scielo.php7pid-S1646


Email: omar.moufakkir@gmail.com

Despite these negative outcomes, many observers have noted the

potential positive economic outcomes of casino-based tourism, including

employment and tax revenue (Carmichael, 2001; Lee, 2011). If the concern is gaining support for gaming,

then pro-development campaigns should target citizens who do not work in

tourism. Lessons from the Atlantic City casino

experience. (1997). Annals of Tourism Research, 17(4), 586-599.

Park, M., Stokowski, P. If more costs become apparent, then

optimists or reserved optimists about the proposed development might

change into skeptic residents (Rwan McCartney, 2005). In

this case, we are interested in learning which of the variables

discriminate the most between tourism workers and non-tourism workers,

between those who live in the city center and those who live outside the

center, and between longtime residents and short-time residents. Tourism: A community approach. Accordingly, the following hypotheses were tested

in this study:

Bao, J., Sun, J. Sanya residents seem to be undecided, or

unconvinced, although this might have little relevance to the reality of

economic and political life on the ground. (1991). Andereck, K. Just over half (52.2%) claimed to be

relatively new residents in Sanya City, while the remainder had lived in

there for five years or longer. non city center dwellers .940 43.326 28 .032

Longtime residents v. McGehee and Andereck (2004), however,

argue that the relationship between community attachment and its

influence on resident attitudes is not yet conclusive. As with the

McCool and Martin study, old-timers in the present study are generally

less favorable toward tourism development, and conversely, newcomers are

more supportive of tourism it.

Kang, S. J., Var, T. Moisey. J., Var, T. (1999). (1998). 217-231.

In China, overt gambling is often associated with evil, although

China used keno-like lottery games to fund the building of the Great

Wall (O’Flahertie, 1995). Since early 2013,

cashless casinos’, where winnings cannot be cashed but can be

traded for goods (e.g. J., Tsai, S. Given the results for people living near the

proposed development versus the others, as well as long-term residents,

urban planners should consider environmentally-friendly, casino-based

facilities and amenities. (2011). A matrix for resident attitudes and

behaviours in a rapidly changing tourist area. Church T. Recently, however, Hainan province is

exploring gaming as a potential revenue source by bringing more tourists

to the region and keeping gaming expenditures at home in China (e.g.,

What’s on Sanya, 2013; echinacities, 2013; Reuters, 2013).


Arizona State University

Ensereink, B., Koppenjan, J. Methods of coping with social desirability

bias: A review. In such a case

instead of having the envisaged expansionary economic effect, gaming

might result in a redistributive effect with a limited contribution to

the local economy (Felsenstein Freeman, 1998).

While social problems may follow casino gaming, there are a few

positive social elements as well. These impacts need to be monitored.

Confirming the results of other studies as noted above, short-time

residents scored the positive social aspects slightly higher than their

counterparts did (e.g., improve quality of life ([bar.x] = 2.97 compared

to [bar.x] = 2.74, with, t = 6,391, p = .012). Only minor differences were recorded between city-dwellers and

those who live outside the city. Journal of

Travel Research, 36(2), 3-11.

Agresti, A. (2008). J., Sheldon, P. (1996). Beyond the casino:

Sustainable tourism and cultural development on Native American lands.

Tourism Geographies, 6(1), 80-98.

Consequently there is a need to find out how local residents think

about such a controversial development in their backyard. Exploring social exchange theory dynamics in

Native American casino settings. Tourism Economics, 17(2), 457-464.

Fredline, E., Faulkner, B. A few researchers have indicated that resident attitudes toward

tourism could be impacted by the distance between their place of

residence and tourism activities (Murphy, 1981; Mason Cheyne 2000;

Sheldon Var, 1984). In May

2011, the Chinese media reported lottery sales of some USD $5.07 billion

during the first quarter of 2010, an increase of 24.5% compared to the

equivalent period a year earlier. Mapping resident perceptions

of gaming impact. Despite its illegality and moral stigma,

Chinese are aggressive risk takers and eager gamers (Casino City, 2002;

Hsu 2006; Timothy Tsai, 2008; Wong Rosenbaum, 2012). As Table 3 shows, there was no statistical

significance in economic perceptions between tourism workers and other

locals. Most resident surveys about gaming have been conducted after

the establishment of casinos in a community. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(2),


Email: dtimothy@asu.edu

Lee, T. (2013). C. recent residents .914 62.664 28 .000

Table 7

Structure Matrices Table for Discriminant Analyses



Tourism workers v. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Keywords: Residents’ attitudes, gaming, casinos, China, Sanya

Carmichael, B. E. Research has also shown that people who

work in tourism are more likely to support its development than other

residents in the same community because it provides jobs, investment

opportunities and ownership potential (Fredline Faulkner, 2000;

Haralambopoulos Pizam, 1996; McGehee Andereck, 2004). (1997). Comparatively,

non-tourism workers think that casino establishment would increase

crime, addiction, family dissolution, divorce, and bankruptcy rates. Wallingford, UK: CABI.

Generally, resident attitude studies have identified factors that

influence perceptions of tourism. Organizational

citizenship behavior in the People’s Republic of China.

Organization Science, 15(2), 241-253.

Summary of results and conclusion

The only difference, although not strong, that exists between the

two groups relates to their opinion about the preservation of local

customs and culture, where those who live in the city center scored

higher than their counterparts ([bar.x] = 2.68 compared to [bar.x] =

2.50, with, t = 3,960, p =.047). These

studies reinforce previous research findings and support the reliability

and validity of the instrument in measuring residents’ attitudes

toward gaming. The

profits of foreign-owned casinos are often directed back to parent

corporations in other countries. Mapping resident

perceptions of gaming impact. Because of its natural, geographical and

cultural advantages, Sanya City is considered the most desired

destination for gaming and therefore a potential competitor for Macau.

It is the southernmost city on the Chinese island, neighboring Macau and

Hong Kong (Figure 1).

Sheldon, P. An integrated resort-casino for Singapore:

Assessing the economic impact. Residents’ perceptions on tourism impacts.

Annals of Tourism Research, 19(4), 665-690.

A Discriminant Analysis (DA) was also conducted. As already noted, the purpose of this study was to test

a series of hypotheses from the literature, and to find out which of the

perception variables are strong predictors between the sample groups.

First, the perceptions of Sanya residents about the potential of gaming

development in their community is presented.


Hsu, C. Tourism Management, 15(4), 247-258.

Phoenix, AZ 85004

Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5(1),


Perceptions of casino development-short-time and longtime residents

Tourism workers believe that gaming would increase community pride,

and increase recreational opportunities in the community. Recent residents and tourism workers

appear to be more optimistic than the other groups. Journal of

Hospitality and Tourism Research, 36(1), 32-51.

Ap, J. ‘Casino cannibalism’ may also result as casinos

begin to dominate the local economy, driving out established lodging,

food and entertainment facilities with their own monopolies on these

services, creating sink holes’ rather than growth poles

(Carmichael, 2001).

Mason, P., Cheyne, J. The Philippines created a regulatory framework for casinos under

President Marcos in 1976, despite having a grey casino market since the

1930s (Ashton Korpi, 2008).

O’Flahertie, S. (1986). Global investors watch how chips fall in Chinas

cashless casino bar. Influence of personal factors on Macau residents

gaming impact perceptions. China is

positioning Hainan as an international tourist destination,

approving the construction of 15 large resorts and 63 five-star

hotels as part of the country’s five-year plan. Tideswell, C., 1997. P., Andersen, O., Nellemann, C., Bjerke, T.,

Thrane, C. Most studies examine different endogenous variables that

might affect resident views, including age, income, gender, education,

and ethnicity (Andereck Vogt, 2000; Easterling, 2004; Harrill,

2004; McGehee Andereck, 2004).

The results of this study support the literature (e.g., Carmichael,

2000; Eadington, 1986; Caneday Zeiger, 1991) that, generally,

residents are somewhat ambivalent towards casino-based tourism

development. Planners and managers should be sensitive to

the environmental concerns of those residents and should communicate

what they are doing to minimize the impact of development on the

environment to reduce opposition based on environmental concerns.

Murphy, P. Tourism Management, 14, 218-27.

Over the past three decades, gambling has grown rapidly and gained

popularity all over the world. Singapore: Institute of Policy Studies.

Blaszczynski, A., Huynh, S., Dumlao, V. Journal of Travel Research, 27, 2-8.

Gaming communities differ from one another and from non gaming

communities. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(6),


Lankford, S., Howard, D. (2004). While such an evaluation for a tourism development proposal is

difficult because of different local variables (Pizam, 1978; Liu

Var, 1986; Sheldon Var; 1984; Perdue, Long, Allen, 1987;

Ayres, 2000), the case with casino gaming development is even more

problematic because so many controversies revolve around gambling

(Moufakkir Holecek, 2012; Timothy Tsai 2008).

Promoting tourist destinations rarely finds success without the

support of local residents (App, 1992). The Economics of Casino Gambling. Piazam (1978), among others (Andereck Vogt, 2000;

Caneday Zeiger, 1991; Jurowski et al., 1997; Milman Pizam,

1988; Perdue, Long Allen, 1990; Mazon, Huete Mantecon,

2009), found that residents working in the tourism industry were more

likely to support tourism development than those who do not work in the

industry. 88). In the same period, the gross revenue

of Macau casinos was USD $5.13 billion, a 57.3% increase from the

previous year (Kareem, 2011).

The sample consists of 711 cases. London: Prentice-Hall.

Kwan, A. (2005). H., Rudd, D. Therefore

more research is continuously needed to anticipate change and foresee

the consequences.

Reece, W. Gaming can also help stimulate

entrepreneurial activity within the destination community. One is increased community pride among

residents and the preservation of local customs (Vong MacCartney,

2005). (2006). Developing a tourism impact

attitude scale. Gambling is

currently only open to hotel guests, however locals will be allowed

to gamble too once the project is completed. The

Casino Bar marks the first time the Chinese government has

experimented with developing a gambling industry in the mainland

(Source: eChinacities).


While the Chinese government does not permit casinos in the country

outside of Macau, Zhang – ranked by Forbes as one of the country’s

300 richest people in 2012 I with $600 million – said Hainan could

become an exception. The casino bar, with 50 gaming tables now, is

currently open only to hotel guests, but when the resort is

completed, local residents will be allowed in. This is because the industry provides economic benefits

to them directly. (1998). Resident

support for gambling as a tourism development strategy. Differences in community

participation in tourism development between China and the West. Chinese

Sociology Anthropology, 39(3), 9-27.


Lee, C., Kim, S., Kang, S. Increased traffic associated

with casino clusters in Las Vegas has created pollution levels far above

the maximum standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency

(York Lee, 2010). Berlin:


MrGehee. The theory and practice of Chinese grassroots

governance: Five models. There are, however, more variables that discriminate

between longtime and short-time residents, with destroy natural

environment, increase water pollution, and increase congestion as the

strongest discriminators.

Um, S., Crompton, J. (1996). (2000). In the case of the United States, many casino employees

live in neighboring states (Chhabra, 2007a), so their earnings and taxes

are often leaked out as well. The sum of amounts of real wealth reduced is

the cost for those who are harmed” (Walker, 2007, p. Resident attitudes toward tourism

impacts in Hawaii. The questionnaire was written

in English and back translated to Mandarin Chinese. G., Nichols, M. Tourism Management, 2(3), 188-195.

Felsenstein D. (2004). Although some critics argue that indigenous people performing

their rituals and dances at resorts and casinos degrades the cultural

value of heritage traditions, others have noted how such activities can

help build solidarity and community esteem within a native society

(Mattern, 1996). Journal of Travel Research,

25(3), 27-29.

Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau. C. Likewise, in many countries, casinos

are staffed by foreign workers, many of whom send their earnings home as

remittances. Community

perception of casino gambling’s effect on crime in new gambling

jurisdictions. (2004). L., Black, W.C. Outlook in the 21st century.

Department of Hotel Restaurant Institution, 21(2), 15-17.

Milman, A., Pizam, A. Furthermore, of the nine other

perception items that are more linked to environmental issues, city

center dwellers supported more the statement that tourism development

would destroy the physical environment ([bar.x] = 3.75, [bar.x] = 3.58,

t = 4,499, p = .034).

Studies on residents’ attitudes toward tourism have identified

factors that influence resident support for tourism. One of

the most common community perceptions regarding gambling is that it

results in increased crime rates, and there is some research evidence to

support this (Grinols Mustard, 2006; Reece, 2010). (1990). (2004). Residents’ perceptions research on the social

impacts of tourism. UNLV

Gaming Research Review Journal, 8(1), 13-30.

Browne, M., Kubasek, N. meals,

accommodation), have operated on Hainan Island, with operators arguing

they have the government’s blessing, while the government maintains

they are illegal and have cracked down on them on more than one

occasion. By 2015, the Asia Pacific market will reach

$79.3 billion from $34.3 billion in 2010, an 18.3 percent compound

annual increase” (Global Gaming Outlook, 2015).

Perceptions of casino development–tourism workers and non-tourism


Respondents were asked to rate their opinions of perception

statements on a 5-point Likert-type scale with 1 representing strongly

disagree and 5 strongly agree. Contested enclave

metageographies: The offshore islands of Taiwan. First, a series of independent

t-tests were computed to check for differences between groups. Pearce R. short-time residents

Destroy natural environment .482

Increase water pollution .469

Increase level of traffic congestion .424

Increase quantity of littering .392

Making living cost higher .356

Preserve local custom and culture -.340

Increase visitors crowding .340

Increase noise level .336

Increase opportunity for using recreational facilities .317

Improve quality of life .309

Increase occurrence of alcohol and drug abuse .303

Improve working conditions .301

Note: Pooled within-groups correlations between discriminating

variables and standardized canonical discriminant functions.

Variables ordered by absolute size of correlation within function

COPYRIGHT 2014 UNLV Gaming Research Review Journal

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

Chhabra, D. Advocates argue that

gambling brings in much-needed regional income and jobs, while opponents

argue that it harms communities, families and individual lives (Wan,


Timothy, D. non-tourism workers, city-center

dwellers v. It was 29.2 percent in 2010, and it is

forecast to reach 43.4 percent in 2015 (Global Gaming Outlook, 2015).

Gambling has become an important part of the tourism economies of

several Asian countries since 1999, including South Korea, Cambodia,

Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Singapore,

Vietnam, and Macau, with several more countries considering adopting

casinos as a way of drawing foreign tourists (Ashton Korpi, 2008;

Kang Hsu, 2000). J. A detailed

analysis in Table 2 suggests that there is a belief that this

development base would very likely benefit the community economically,

but will have a negative impact socially and environmentally. (2004). Living costs increase for tourists and residents (Vong

MacCartney, 2005). Macau: Must Read


Jarowski and Gursoy (2004) studied resident attitudes in relation

to distance from tourist attractions and found that residents who live

close to the tourism resource base have a negative perception of the

benefits of tourism and are not likely to support tourism development,

probably because of fear that their ability to use the recreational

resources may be impaired by tourist crowds. UNLV Gaming Research Review Journal,

12(1), 15-28.

Murphy, P. In Tourism recreation and sustainability, edited

by S.F.I McCool and R.N. Retrieved on September 16, 2013, from



This study examined the perceptions of Sanya residents about the

proposed casino development and broader plans for gaming in their

community. While both

groups seem to agree on the negative externalities attributed to gaming

development, non-tourism residents were more likely to support this

activity as it might potentially improve working conditions, public

utilities and infrastructure linked to tourism, and increased

recreational opportunities for locals.

Gambling addictions are frequently to blame for social

deterioration, breakdown of families, loss of employment, drug and

alcohol use, prostitution, deterioration of mental and physical health,

and suicide (Blaszczynski Farrell, 1998; Chhabra, 2007b; Phillips,

2007; Wan 2012). Resident attitude

surveys have been used by planners and policymakers in order to gain

local support for tourism projects and initiatives. It is crucial, therefore, that residents are empowered in

decision making and that their perceptions and attitudes about tourism

are well understood by planners and destination managers. The spread of casinos and their role in

tourism development. P. In particular, the study evaluates the

difference in perception between tourism workers and non-tourism

workers, residents who live in the city center where the casino

development project is planned and those who live outside the city

center, and short-term residents and longterm residents. This study found differences in perception

between groups, and these need to be taken into consideration for

enlightened and strategic decision-making.

Nederhof, A. W. Australian casinos: Responsible

gambling initiatives, 1999-2008. The lack of

gaming opportunities in other parts of China has stimulated the growth

of casinos in Myanmar and Vietnam near the borders of China. The

results are presented in the structure matrix table. Residents

attitude surveys have been widely used in tourism to assess residents

attitudes towards tourism development (Davis, Allen Cosenza, 1988;

Garrod Fyall, 1998; Jurowski, 1994; Sheldon Abenoja, 2001).

Liu, C. Gaming

statistics. February 19, 2013. (2008, June 9). Freeman D. In this study, support for the

potential economic impacts is recognized by residents, while they also

seem to hold more negative perceptions regarding the social and

environmental impacts of casino gaming. M. This allowed the interviewer to acquire a

sizable sample of people who work and do not work in tourism.

Respondents were asked whether or not they were employed in tourism.

Once screened, they were briefly introduced to the research topic and

told the purpose of the study. Tourism Management,

21(6), 601-611.

H3: There is a difference in perception about gaming development

between I short-term residents and long-term residents.

Gaming as a source of entertainment and leisure has existed in Asia

for centuries. (1998). G. Nearby Japan, one of the most popular foreign destinations for

Chinese tourists, is also considering changing its laws banning casinos

and other forms of gambling as a means of improving the country’s

tourism economy. Resident attitudes toward tourism: A longitudinal

study of the Spey Valley, Scotland. Journal of

Gambling Studies, 14(4), 359-380.

Perceptions of casino development–city center and exurban


Mattern, M. (2008). The

variables which discriminate the most between these two groups are

improve working conditions, increase bankruptcy, and ‘increase

occurrence of crime’.

Braunlich, C. This is the proportion of the

total variance in the discriminant scores not explained by differences

among groups. A. In light of this change, national and provincial leaders

ought to heed the concerns of local residents, even though there is a

tradition in Chinese culture and under communism of conformity with

ruling classes (Farh, Zhong Organ, 2004). Changes in selected economic and social

indicators associated with the establishment of casinos in the City of

Detroit: A Case Study. Casinos, crime and

community costs. A baseline evaluation of casino

air quality after enactment of Nevada’s Clean Indoor Air Act.

Public Health Nursing, 27(2), 158-163.

Marshall, L. Arguments have also been made

that legalized gambling helps stem the flow of money out of the economy,

as locals will remain at home to play rather than spending their money

elsewhere (Gazel, 1998).

Goodman, R. Survey says Asia’s gaming revenue

likely to surpass that of US by 2012. (2008). R. Annals of the American Academy of Political and

Social Science, 556(1), 66-84.

The findings of this study suggest that residents are likely to

react differently depending on their length of residency. In O.

Moufakkir P. echinacities.


Saxion University of Applied Sciences

Easterling, D. Should we encourage expansion

of the casino gaming industry? Review of Business, 18(3), 9-14.

While Macau offers world class casinos, casino gaming is not

legalized in Mainland China. Measuring residents’

attachment levels in a host community. The interplay of elements affecting host

community resident attitudes toward tourism: A path analytic approach.

PhD dissertation. However, other

studies suggest that not all gaming destinations experience higher

levels of crime than non-gaming destinations (Moufakkir, 2005; Park

Stokowski, 2011).

Ap, J. Despite the

proliferation of casinos and the popularity of gaming, casino gaming

remains a contested economic development activity. L., Boger, C. Northampton, MA: United States Gambling Study.

Recent residents believe that casinos would increase income,

preserve culture, improve employees working conditions, increase

recreational opportunities, and improve quality of life. (1995). (2010). Gambling tourism also has the potential to develop

recreational and cultural opportunities for community members, improve

educational and health-care facilities, and preserve heritage sites and

living cultures through the economic benefits of gaming (Braunlich,

1996; Browne Kubasek, 1997).

Ashton, H., Korpi, L. However, while both mean scores tend to show support for the

social perception statements, the means of non-tourism workers were

higher. Casino industry in Asia Pacific: Development,

operation, and impact. The first casino opened in South

Korea in 1967. This study assesses the perceptions of residents

about potential gaming development in their community. UNLV Gaming Research Review

Journal, 11 (2), 31-48.

Resident perceptions of gambling and tourism

Harrill (2004) proposed three ways of understanding people’s

attitudes towards casino development. Retrieved on September 16, 2013, from



HI: There is a difference in perception about gaming development

between I tourism workers and non-tourism workers.

Spears, D. Abingdon: Routledge.

Caneday, L., 8c Zeiger, J. Simulating the impacts of

gambling in a tourist location: Some evidence from Israel. The

only form of legal gambling is the increasingly popular lottery. Journal of Political Science, 4(2),


The social costs of gaming tourism can be summed up as “a

reduction in social real wealth. Many researchers use the

structure matrix correlations because they are considered more accurate

than the Standardized Canonical Discriminant Function Coefficients

(Agresti, 1996). Community-driven tourism planning and

residents’ preferences. This approach holds that individuals who do not

directly receive economic benefits from gambling are not expected to

support further tourism development (Harrill, 2004; Kaltenborn,

Andersen, Nellemann, Bjerke Thrane, 2008; Oviedo-Garcia,

Castellanos-Verdugo Martin-Ruiz, 2008). Community attitudes to tourism: A comparative

analysis. The economic impact of opening a gaming venue in

Australia. M., Paradis, T. Gaining residents support for tourism and planning.

International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(2), 95-109.

Sheldon, P. non-workers .847 115.722 25 .000

City-center v. Support for gaming depends on

how the host population perceives the impacts of casino development

(Giacopassi et al., 2001). non-city center dwellers

Opportunity to gamble at casino in Sanya .323

Destroy natural environment .314

Longtime residents v. (1996). Identifying these can help in

decision-making. (2012). A series of

hypotheses were tested. Several

studies have found that, the longer residents live in a place, the more

they oppose tourism (Harrill, 2004; Lankford Howard, 1994),

although some studies in different contexts have found different results

(McGehee Andereck, 2004). Journal of Travel Research, 32(3),

29 34.

China Post (2013). (1985). (1978). Journal of Travel

Research, 50(3), 289-302.

Kaltenborn, B. In D. B., Organ, D.W. (1998). Legalized

casinos are widely viewed as a viable economic development tool (Hsu,

2006; Perdue, Long, Kang, 1995) and can effect economic,

environmental and socio-cultural changes in the destination community.

All three types of changes can be viewed as negative or positive

outcomes in the context of gambling tourism, and attitudes towards

gambling will depend on whether those changes are going to improve or

deteriorate one’s quality of life (Harrill, Uysal, Cardon, Vong

Dioko, 2011).

Moufakkir, O., Holecek, D. (1994). Some people re-mortgage their homes, get loans, or

liquidate their retirement funds to feed gaming addictions (Goldman,


Eadington, W. Public participation in

China: Sustainable urbanization and governance. The

dependent variables in this study are the 25 perception statements and

are based upon tourism workers v. Thus, Chinese wishing to play in casinos are required

to travel abroad or to Macau. More than half (51.6%)

were single, while 34.4% were married. The

rationale for undertaking resident attitude surveys during or after

tourism development in general or for a specific tourism development

strategy is to assess the perceived benefits and costs of the strategy

with the objective of controlling its direction towards a more favorable

outcome (Kwan McCartney, 2004). It should be noted that during data

collection tourism workers demonstrated more interest in this study than

did other residents.


Hospitality Business School

Goldman, A. Cole (Eds.),

Tourism, Power and Space (pp. M. The second approach comes from “growth machine” theory

where gambling is regarded as a driving force for a community’s

economic growth. Gendered social exchange theory variations

across the life span in casino settings. (2007). More research is needed among different stakeholders

on Hainan Island, including people in the resort areas and in other

parts of the island where tourism is not well developed, to understand

broader community perspectives on gambling and its future potential.

Discriminant Analysis

Perdue, R., Long, P., Allen, L. Following this, the market was dominated for many years

by the Paradise Group. London:


Mazon, T., Huete, R., Mantecon, A. A case series of 44

completed gambling-related suicides. The

literature argues that differences in perception exist between resident


One of the most obvious negative economic outcomes is leakage,

where money earned by casinos leaks out of the destination economy. (2005). (2009). (1993). (2012). 185). (1992). Burns (Eds.), Controversies in Tourism (pp.

125-143). They then propose that

tourism planners should take measures to protect the use of the resource

base for the locals or enhance the ability to use it. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Some studies find the longer residents live in a destination the

more they oppose tourism (Lankford Howard, 1994; McCool

Martin, 1994; Harrill, 2004). Residents’ attitudes to

proposed tourism development. “To some extent, the approval of gaming on Chinese soil is

inevitable,” said Gary Pinge, analyst at Macquarie Group in Hong

Kong. As Table 1 indicates, most

respondents were between 18 and 45 years old. A lambda of 1.00 occurs when observed group means are

equal (all the variance is explained by factors other than difference

between those means), while a small lambda occurs when within-group

variability is small compared to the total variability. The Discriminant Analysis shows that only a

few variables discriminate between the sample groups. It suggests that if people receive more

benefits than costs from an exchange, they will more likely be involved

in it. Owing largely to the potential threat of neighboring states

and territories allowing large-scale casino gaming, the Chinese

government is considering allowing limited casino development in

well-established resort areas, such as Hainan. More precisely, 15.6% strongly disagree, 18.8% disagree,

30.5% agree, 9% strongly agree, and 26% are undecided. (1994). The third approach is

“social exchange theory”, which focuses on resource exchanges

between individuals and groups. (2005). Matsu population jumps after casino referendum.

The China Post, 28 January, 2013. (2002). (1996). The social, economic, and

environmental costs of tourism to a gambling community as perceived by

its residents. One of the

purposes of DA is to investigate differences between groups on the basis

of case attributes, indicating which attributes contribute most to group

separation. Journal of Travel Research, 44(2), 177-187.

Dallen J. American Indian Culture and Research Journal,

20(4), 183-201.

Previous studies on resident perceptions of tourism and gaming

development have identified economic, social, and environmental

dimensions using measurement scales consisting of 10 to 30 items (Pizam

1978; Liu Var 1986; Perdue et al., 1990; Ap Crompton, 1993;

Giacoppacssi, Stitt Nichols, 2001; Spears Boger, 2003; Lee,

Kim Kang, 2003; Kwan McCartney, 2005). (1981). The table identifies the

largest absolute correlations associated with each discriminant



Gambling-based controversies can help destination planners and

managers learn from the mistakes and successes of others. A similar study profiling clusters by demographic

variables “could help authorities and casino operators label

various stakeholder groups at various stages of gaming development”

(p. (2006). (1995). L., Lee, K. A., Rosenbaum, M. , Kang, Y. Journal of Travel

Research 16(4), 8-12.


Casino gaming has been touted as a means of stimulating the tourism

economy (Goodman, 1994; Piner Paradis, 2004; Henderson, 2006).

Nevertheless, controversial issues arise whenever and wherever casino

development is considered (Janes Collison, 2004, Kang et al.,

2008; Moufakkir, 2002; Roehl, 1999; Vong, 2008). Development of the gambling attitude

scales: Preliminary findings. (2000). These

two variables and where inhabitants live in relation to the city are

important variables in the context of Sanya City and are examined in

this study. Inside Asian gaming. Taiwan,

too, where gambling is still illegal on the mainland but legislative

maneuvers are beginning to allow it on the peripheral islands

(Baldacchino Tsai, 2014), earlier considered building casinos

offshore on its Penghu Islands to attract players from China (Timothy

Tsai, 2008), although a 2009 public referendum in Penghu voted

down the plan (Baldacchino Tsai, 2014). Asian countries are awakening to the

potential of commercial gaming and finding innovative models to attract

players from across Asia and the globe, as many countries believe

gambling to be a lucrative source of revenue. New support (2012-2013) in

Taiwan’s Matsu Islands for the development of a casino there may

result in the establishment of a large-scale casino, and there are other

options being mulled around for casino development on Taiwan’s

peripheral islands and near the international airport (China Post,

2013). The purpose for conducting such a

survey prior to the proposed development is either to adopt the strategy

as a benefit to the community or reject it and select a more favorable

one. The case for other

perception items is also similar, in that short-time residents seem to

score higher on statements with positive connotations than those that

support a negative externality (see Table 5).

Chhabra, D. The hypotheses

here posited that residents who had been living in Sanya for five years

or longer were less likely to be positive about gaming development than

more recent residents. L., Zhong, C. (1990). Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, East Lansing,

Michigan: Michigan State University.

Handelskade 75, Deventer

Study Hypotheses

Oviedo-Garcia, M., Castellanos-Verdugo, M., Martin-Ruiz, D.

(2008). Planners and

investors are exploring ways to allow gaming for tourism development on

the holiday island of Hainan. The hypothesis was

based on the assumption that respondents who reside in the city center,

where gaming development is proposed, were more likely to express

negative perceptions of casinos because of the potential negative and

positive attributes that are associated with tourism development in

general. Factors predicting rural


Table 6 provides one way in the DA results of indicating the

relative importance of the predictors. (2001). S. Long-time

residents, however, think that the opening of casinos would increase the

cost of living in the community, alcohol and drug-use, visitor crowding,

litter in the streets, traffic congestion, noise and pollution levels,

as well as destroy the natural environment. Host community reactions:

A cluster analysis. Community leader

perceptions of the social and economic impacts of Indian gaming. (2008). London: Routledge.

Other researchers have studied the influence of inhabitants’

length of residence in the destination and whether or not they are

employed in tourism on their perceptions of tourism development. Journal of Business Research, 44(3), 223-229. . Beyond the rhetoric of

sustainable tourism? Tourism Management, 19(3), 199-212.

Timothy, D. I. A small lambda

indicates that group means appear to differ (Hair et al., 1998). The questionnaire

was piloted on 13 respondents.

Janes, P. These significant

values indicate that the group means appear to differ (Table 6).

Phillips, D. Perceptions of casino

impacts: A Korean longitudinal study. Journal of Travel Research, 44(2005),


Vong, F., MacCartney, G. The term wealth is not only money, it

is the individual value. Tourism impacts: The social costs of the

destination community as perceived by its residents. Betting on casino tourism in Asia:

Singapore’s integrated resorts. Eyes on casino gaming in Sanya: Making the case

First Mainland “Cashless Casino Concept” Opens in Sanya Resort

The Casino Bar recently opened at the Mangrove Tree Resort in Sanya

Bay. (2006). Resident

perception of the environmental impacts of tourism. Casinos are the next big thing. In 2002 Macau had 11 casinos; it counts 35 casinos

today (Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau, 2013). Wilks’ Lambda is the ratio of within-groups sums

of squares to the total sums of squares. Butler, Contemporary

issues in tourism development (pp. (1988): Social impacts of tourism on

central Florida. (2009) found that respondents whose

work was linked to tourism were also more critical about tourism

development than their counterparts, because the former have a deeper

knowledge of the potential negative impacts of tourism in general, in

addition to their economic dependency on this economic base.

Gazel, R. Anatolia, 18(1), 145-152.

Resident perceptions about gaming development

Wiley J. Table 4 shows that while all respondents appear to be positive

about the potential economic benefits of gaming, there were no

statistically significant differences between the two sample groups.

With regard to the social statements, both sets of respondents believe

this type of tourism development would create negative social costs,

such as increased use of pawn shops, crime, gambling addiction and

prostitution. This study aims to take a

pre-emptive approach to survey the situation before casinos are built.

In short, successful tourism development depends on the cooperation of

local communities (Lankford, 1994; Murphy, 1985). L., Farrell, E.

(1998). Casinos are

well-known magnets for other businesses that open to cater to the needs

of gamers (Walker, 2007; Moufakkir, 2002). In China, these results bear

unique and interesting implications. For the most part, decisions are

made not at local levels, but rather at national and provincial levels

and typically imposed on lower-order governments and communities

(Ensereink Koppenjan, 2007; He, 2003). (2007). Retrieved on November 25,

2007, from http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/stories/sun/2006/



Box 1. Respondents, however, were assured confidentiality and

anonymity, a strategy that reduces social desirability bias. The

associated significance value indicates whether the difference is

significant. Given

the negative and positive impacts of casinos, it is certain that

communities considering gaming would have some concerns about its

influences. P. For instance, Macau has a

gaming history dating back to the 19th century and was a monopoly-based

jurisdiction with Stanley Ho’s company holding the sole concession

for casino gaming from 1962 to 2002. Not all casinos

are equally successful business ventures, and not all casino developers

keep their promises to the community (Moufakkir, 2005).


Kwan and McCartney (2005) have developed clusters based on

residents’ beliefs about gaming in Macao. Journal of Travel Research, 30(2), 45-49.

Not all residents hold the same perceptions. Positive attributes, including improved quality of life,

preservation of local culture, or increased community pride, all scored


Lee, C-K., Kang, S., Long, P., Reisinger, Y. Annals of Tourism Research, 15(2), 191-204.

Data were processed with SPSS 20. The local government

is very supportive of the project, and is in the process of making

changes to the current regulations that prohibit gambling. Resident attitudes to tourism

in North Wales. Support for gaming development depends on perceived

economic, social, and environmental benefits and costs (Canaday

Zeiger, 1991; Carmichael, 2000). In many Asian cultures, betting-type games are an

integral part of peoples lives. Non-tourism residents were more likely to agree that casinos

would increase crime ([bar.x] = 3.85 compared to [bar.x] -3.48, t =

16,809, p = .001), gambling addiction, divorces, and bankruptcies.

However, tourism workers were more likely to think that gaming would

increase community pride ([bar.x] =2.92, t = 7,847, p =.005). Problem gaming within a Chinese speaking community. (2000). A residents attitude study about

gaming impact in Macau by (Kwan McCartney, 2005) resulted in a

response rate of 74.6%. The economic impacts of casino gambling at the

state and local levels. Resident support for

tourism development. It has been recognized

that tourism development is usually justified on the basis of perceived

benefits and costs. In many small gambling communities, tourist

traffic exceeds local traffic during high seasons, resulting in thick

congestion, driving hazards, noise and increased air pollution (Perdue

et al., 1995).

the Netherlands

Kang, S., Hsu, C. (2012). Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 763-784.

Harrill, R., Uysal, M., Cardon, P.W., Vong, F., Dioko, L.

(2011). Casino gaming and crime:

Comparisons among gaming counties and other places. Journal of Travel and Tourism

Marketing, 17(4), 45-62.

Reuters. (2004). (1984). Tourism Management, 29(4), 681-694.

Andereck, K. Legalized gambling as a strategy for economic

development. Annals of Tourism Research, 13(2), 193-214.

Positioning casino gaming development in the minds of residents

does not necessarily mean that it will be a success. G. Discriminant Analysis

was used to investigate differences between groups on the basis of the

attributes of the cases, indicating which attributes contribute most to

group separation (Hair, Anderson, Tatham Black, 1998).

Limitations and suggestions for future research

In 2010, Macau attracted 27 million visitors, of which about 75%

were from mainland China and Hong Kong, many of whom go for gaming

purposes. The negative items scored

higher among longtime residents, including an increase in alcoholism and

drug use, where longtime inhabitants scored a mean of 3.71 compared to

3.51 among the others (f = 6,130, p = 0.14). L., Mustard, D. jewelry, artwork) or services (e.g. Resident attitude

surveys can enlighten policy and development decisions (Harril, 2004).

Other studies suggest that resident attitudes about tourism may be

affected by the distance between their homes and the main tourism

activities (Murphy, 1981; Mason Cheyne 2000). A Framework for monitoring

community impacts of tourism. The social, economic and environmental

impacts of casino gaming in Macao: The community leader perspective.

Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(5), 737-755.

Moufakkir, O. Generally, like factor

loadings, 0.30 is seen as the cut-off between important and less

important variables (Hair et al., 1998). (2002). Therefore, it is important

to understand residents’ attitudes toward gambling from the

perspective of both benefits and costs to the destination. Residents perceptions and

attitudes towards Native American Gaming (NAG) in Kansas: Demographics,

policies, and future development. (1987). Respondents (residents) were randomly

intercepted by the interviewer in the streets, parks, hotels,

restaurants and at tourist attractions, and asked to participate in the

study. The Powwow as a public arena for negotiating

unity and diversity. They also found

that those who live far from the tourism attraction were more concerned

with the negative environmental impacts of the attractions. Their success may depend on whether local casinos

constitute a “destination casino”, which offers gambling

within a mega-resort context with accommodations, retail, meeting

facilities, and dining and entertainment opportunities. Property values sometimes increase so much that

it results in the displacement of locals who can no longer afford to buy

land or pay their property taxes (Marshall Rudd, 1996; Wiley

Walker, 2011). The residents’ perspective in tourism

research: A review and synthesis. P. In an exploratory study about

Macao residents’ perceptions of the impact of gaming development

(Kwan McCartney, 2005), perception items with the highest score

are similar to those in this study, and relate to economic benefits;

whereas those with a lower score relate to environmental and social


Jurowski, C. Cosenza, J. Stakeholder views of

legalized casino gambling in Taiwan: Taiwanese student perceptions.

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 6(1), 77-94.

Omar Moufakkir, Ph.D.

Getz, D. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13(1), 41-53.

According to Koh (2004), the Asian share of world revenue from

gaming was 22.4 percent in 2004. Here, the Lambda of 0.847, 0.940, and 0.914 are large,

which suggests that the group differences are small. (1988).

Segmenting local resident by their attitudes, interest, and opinions

toward tourism. (1999). Annals of Tourism

Research, 14, 17-37.

Piner, J. Notes on the social exchange theory.

Revista Encontros Cientificos–Tourism Management Studies,

Encontros Cientificos n.5 Faro 2009. (1998).

Multivariate Analysis. (2006). V. Political Geography,

40, 13-24.

Understanding resident attitudes toward tourism is valuable because

the community can either be supportive or antagonistic (Getz, 1994).

Community support is vital to tourism’s success because tourism

uses the destination environment and culture as a resource, and the

people are an important part of the product (Murphy, 1985; Timothy 1999;

2007). A theoretical

analysis of host community resident reactions to tourism. In particular, the study evaluates the difference in

perception between tourism workers and non-tourism workers, effects of

proximity to the proposed casino location, and community members’

length of residence in Sanya on their perceptions of the development.

Results may help planners and policymakers with their decisions. Annals of Tourism Research,

31(2), 296-312.

At the time of writing, Macau is the only place in China where

casinos are legal. Other forms of “illegal leakage”

also exist, such as tax evasion and money laundering (Eadington, 1999).

Thus, overall only a few variables in the model appear to be

important discriminators between the groups, with only three for tourism

workers versus their counterparts, namely improve working condition,

increase bankruptcy, and increased crime, and two for city and non-city

center dwellers. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(2), 371-391.

Liu, C. Management of

Environmental Quality, 18(4), 459-474.

Previous studies suggest that residents who work in tourism are

more likely than other residents in the same community to support

tourism because of its potential economic benefits (Fredline

Faulkner, 2000; Haralambopoulos Pizam, 1996; McGehee

Andereck, 2004). As Chinese spend

their money in new casinos across Asia from the Philippines to

Vietnam, pressure is growing on Beijing to keep more gamblers at

home. The interviewer made it clear that the

statements were hypothetical. Community support is critical to the success of tourism

because it uses the destination as part of the product.

Pizam, A. “With regional markets already vying for a share of the

Chinese gambling wallet, unless China brings gaming onto its own

shores, it will not only lose tax revenues to other countries, but

also the multiplier effect from the consumption spend (Source:

Reuters, 2013).

Kareem, J. UNLV Gaming Research

and Review Journal, 9(1), 15-28.

Literature Review

Roehl, W. 127-143). 10). (2004). On the other hand, longtime residents believe more

strongly that casinos would increase the cost of living (x= 3.86

compared to x= 3.65, with, t = 8,487, p =.004).

Walker, D. Casino revenues and retail

property values: The Detroit case. Residents support for tourism development will depend on their

perception of the benefits and costs resulting from this activity (Ap,

1990; 1992). Contemporary

Economic Policy, 28(2), 145-161.

eChinacities. Utilizing local concerns

and recommendations by the people who live in the destination will build

goodwill and help tourism to develop in ways that are in line with local

mores and social networks.

Jurowski, C., Gursoy, D. Table 5 suggests that while both groups seem to

agree on the potential economic benefits, recent residents tend to agree

more with the statement that residents’ income would probably

increase from casino development (x = 3.51 compared to x = 3.34, with, t

= 3,847, p =.050). Wallingford: CABI, pp. The present

instrument was based on 25 attitude items gleaned from the resident

attitude and gaming literature, largely derived from a comprehensive

list of gaming impact issues used by Lee, Kim and Kang (2003). When addicted

gamblers lose, crime wins. You bet there’s a problem. (1994). non-tourism workers

Improve working condition .466

Increase bankruptcy .403

Increase occurrence of crime .362

City center dwellers v. J. A. (2007). Also, as stated

earlier, tourism workers were more responsive to the questionnaire than

their counterparts, and therefore responses may suffer from social

desirability. In response,

there is a growing literature on destination residents’ perceptions

of tourism. (1996). An Introduction to Categorical Data Analysis.

Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Moufakkir, O. Review of Economics and Statistics, 88(1), 28-45.

Timothy, D. Street surveys took place in

mornings and afternoons. Journal of Travel Research, 39(1), 27-36.

Table 1

Overall Sample Demographic Characteristics (N=711)


Male 52.0%

Female 48.0%

Years lived in Sanya

Less than 5 years 52.2%

5 years longer 47.8%

Education level

High school or less 15.6%

Junior college 18.1%

Bachelor 46.1%

Postgraduate or over 13.4%

Other 6.8%


Below 18 5.3%

18-25 35.6%

26-35 23.6%

36-45 20.7%

46-55 9 1%

56-75 5.2%

Over 75 0.4%


Student 21.1%

Skilled worker 8.9%

Marketing sales 12.0%

Administrative mgt 7.9%

Technical staff 8.3%

Public servant 9.1%

Professional 12.1%

Unemployed 1.1%

Other 19.5%

Have children

Yes 40.9%

No 59.1%

Where they live

City center 61.1%

Outside city center 38.9%

Marital status

Single 51.6%

Married 34.4%

Divorced 10.0%

Widowed 3.9%

Monthly income

Less than RMB 3,000 49.8%

RMB 3,000-5,000 24.2%

RMB 5,001-7,000 15.0%

RMB 7,001-10,000 5.9%

Over 10,000 5.1%

Table 2

Residents’ Attitudes towards Casino Development in Sanya


Positive impacts

Increase tourist spending 3.69

Increase employment 3.83

Increase tax revenues 4.10

Improve infrastructure 3.35

Improve working conditions 2.91

Increase income of residents 3.43

Improve quality of life 2.86

Preserve local custom and culture 2.58

Increase pride of local residents 2.78

Increase recreational opportunities 3.70

Negative impacts

Increase use of pawn shops 3.86

Increase occurrence of crime 3.68

Increase addiction to gambling 3.65

Increase destruction of family 3.52

Increase occurrence of prostitution 3.72

Increase occurrence of divorce 3.40

Increase bankruptcy 3.64

Increase alcoholism and drug abuse 3.61

Making living cost higher 3.77

Increase visitors crowding 4.17

Increase quantity of littering 3.87

Increase level of traffic congestion 3.78

Destroy natural environment 3.67

Increase noise levels 3.83

Increase water pollution 3.64

Note: 1=Strongly disagree, 5=Strongly agree

Table 3

Perceptions of Tourism Workers and Non-tourism

Workers towards Gaming Development in Sanya


Tourism tourism

workers workers Total t-test p-value

Positive impacts

Increase tourist spending 3.6 3.76 3.69 2.779 .096

Increase employment 3.78 3.88 3.83 1.257 .263

Increase tax revenues 4.02 4.16 4.10 2.863 .091

Increase resident income 3.41 3.44 3.43 .119 .730

Improve quality of life 2.90 2.83 2.86 .519 .472

Preserve local customs 2.64 2.52 2.58 1.751 .186


Increase community pride 2.92 2.67 2.78 7.847 .005

Improve infrastructure 3.20 3.48 3.35 9.239 .002

Improve working conditions 2.64 3.12 2.91 27.774 .001

Increase recreational 3.81 3.61 3.70 5.520 .019


Negative impacts

Increase use of pawn shops 3.87 3.86 3.86 .009 .924

Increase cost of living 3.73 3.80 3.77 .841 .359

Increase crime 3.48 3.85 3.68 16.809 .001

Increase gambling addiction 3.51 3.76 3.65 7.251 .007

Increase family dissolution 3.42 3.60 3.52 4.468 .035

Increase prostitution 3.72 3.72 3.72 .001 .976

Increase divorce rate 3.31 3.48 3.40 3.880 0.49

Increase bankruptcies 3.42 3.81 3.64 20.863 .001

Increase alcoholism drug 3.54 3.66 3.61 2.033 .154


Increase visitor crowding 4.20 4.15 4.17 .387 .534

Increase litter 3.90 3.84 3.87 .477 .490

Increase traffic congestion 3.77 3.79 3.78 .037 .848

Destroy natural 3.66 3.68 3.67 .066 .797


Increase noise 3.84 3.83 3.83 .014 .906

Increase water pollution 3.64 3.65 3.64 .023 .880

Table 4

Perceptions of Residents who Live in the City Center and

Residents Living Outside the City toward Gaming Development

in Sanya

City Outside

center city Total t-test p-value

Positive impacts

Increase tourist spending 3.67 3.71 3.69 .140 .708

Increase employment 3.80 3.89 3.83 1.206 .272

Increase tax revenues 4.12 4.06 4.10 .603 .438

Increase resident income 3.36 3.53 3.43 3.550 .060

Improve quality of life 2.83 2.90 2.86 .479 .489

Preserve local customs 2.50 2.68 2.58 3.960 .047

and culture

Increase community pride 2.77 2.80 2.78 .133 .715

Improve public 3.32 3.41 3.35 .999 .318


Improve working 2.84 3.01 2.91 3.346 .068


Increase recreational 3.69 3.72 3.70 .091 .763


Negative impacts

Increase use of pawn 3.90 3.81 3.86 1.254 .263


Increase cost of living 3.75 3.79 3.77 .284 .594

Increase crime 3.65 3.72 3.68 .573 .449

Increase gambling 3.69 3.59 3.65 1.199 .274


Increase family 3.54 3.49 3.52 .244 .621


Increase prostitution 3.70 3.75 3.72 .398 .528

Increase divorce 3.42 3.39 3.40 .118 .731

Increase bankruptcies 3.61 3.67 3.64 .381 .537

Increase alcoholism 3.62 3.60 3.61 .035 .851

drug use

Increase visitor 4.22 4.11 4.17 2.099 .148


Increase litter 3.93 3.79 3.87 2.985 .084

Increase traffic 3.84 3.70 3.78 2.973 .085


Destroy natural 3.75 3.56 3.67 4.499 .034


Increase noise 3.86 3.79 3.83 .664 .415

Increase water pollution 3.69 3.58 3.64 1.433 .232

Table 5

Perceptions of Recent and Longtime Residents

towards Gaming Development in Sanya

Recent Longtime

residents residents Total

Positive impacts

Increase tourist spending 3.71 3.66 3.69

Increase employment 3.83 3.84 3.83

Increase tax revenues 4.09 4.11 4.10

Increase resident income 3.51 3.34 3.43

Improve quality of life 2.97 2.74 2.86

Preserve local customs culture 2.70 2.45 2.58

Increase community pride 2.80 2.76 2.78

Improve public infrastructure 3.33 3.38 3.35

Improve working conditions 3.02 2.79 2.91

Increase recreational 3.81 3.59 3.70


Negative impacts

Increase use of pawn shops 3.86 3.87 3.86

Increase cost of living 3.65 3.89 3.77

Increase crime 3.62 3.75 3.68

Increase gambling addiction 3.60 3.70 3.65

Increase family dissolution 3.46 3.58 3.52

Increase prostitution 3.66 3.78 3.72

Increase divorce 3.36 3.45 3.40

Increase bankruptcies 3.60 3.68 3.64

Increase alcoholism drug use 3.51 3.71 3.61

Increase visitor crowding 4.07 4.28 4.17

Increase litter 3.74 4.01 3.87

Increase traffic congestion 3.64 3.93 3.78

Destroy natural environment 3.51 3.84 3.67

Increase noise 3.72 3.96 3.83

Increase water pollution 3.48 3.82 3.64

t-test p-value

Positive impacts

Increase tourist spending .258 .612

Increase employment .010 .922

Increase tax revenues .063 .803

Increase resident income 3.847 .050

Improve quality of life 6.391 .012

Preserve local customs culture 7.740 .006

Increase community pride .210 .647

Improve public infrastructure .287 .593

Improve working conditions 6.041 .014

Increase recreational 6.740 .010


Negative impacts

Increase use of pawn shops .027 .870

Increase cost of living 8.487 .004

Increase crime 2.010 .157

Increase gambling addiction 1.176 .278

Increase family dissolution 1.705 .192

Increase prostitution 2.072 .150

Increase divorce .967 .326

Increase bankruptcies .830 .362

Increase alcoholism drug use 6.130 .014

Increase visitor crowding 7.732 .006

Increase litter 10.267 .001

Increase traffic congestion 12.043 .001

Destroy natural environment 15.526 .001

Increase noise 7.547 .006

Increase water pollution 14.718 .001

Table 6

Wilks’ Lambdas for Discriminant Analyses

Wilks’ Chi-

Lambda square df Sig.

Tourism workers v. Gaming in the USA:

Historical development, controversies and current status. (2001). S. Las Vegas Sun. The most discriminating

variables between these two groups are destroy natural environment,

increase water pollution, ‘increase traffic congestion’, and

“increase littering. Implications for

planning and communication are given.

Besides residents’ attitudes, the successes or failures of

casinos may be determined by management practices, marketing activities,

competition, and government regulations. The relationship between

residents’ attitudes toward tourism and tourism development

options. M. The American Gaming Association estimated that

casino gambling revenues in Asia will likely surpass those in the USA in

the next several years, measuring in the billions of dollars annually

(Blume, 2008).

He, B. Retrieved on September 16,

2013, from http://www. Residents’ attitudes toward tourism

development: A literature review with implications for tourism planning.

Journal of Planning Literature, 18(3), 251-266.

Kassinove, J. Casino jobs

are often associated with higher salaries than other service-sector

jobs, and gaming taxes are seen as a “painless” way of

increasing taxes with less local opposition than increases in general

sales tax (Walker, 2007, p. Quality of life issues in a casino

destination. Asian

Business Review, (February), 70.

Perdue, R. The casino and online gaming market to 2015.

Retrieved on September 26, 2013, from www.pwc.com/em

Harrill, R. The case for supporting gaming

will then rest on enlightened decisions and policies based not only on

the benefits and costs of the proposed gaming development, but also on

the consideration of other economic alternatives. If further development produces apparent benefits, residents

attitudes might also change. Malaysia opened its Genting Highlands casino in

1971. This descriptive technique successively identifies the

linear combination of attributes known as canonical discriminant

functions (equations) which contribute maximally to group separation. Residents’

attitudes may change following the life cycle and development stage of

the economic activity or destination, as well as its successes or

failures. (1994). (2000). (2014). Resident

attitude surveys are crucial in providing decision-making data about the

feelings of residents. In addition, the paper aims to identify which

perceptions diverge most between sample groups. The focus of these should be how gaming will contribute to the

working conditions of tourism employees and how crime and other social

ills will be mitigated. (1994). Participatory planning: A view of tourism in

Indonesia. C., Mccartney, C. m, designed to look like a casino and

features the same licensing practices and rules as casinos in

Macau. Tourism Management, 24(1), 45-55.

Carmichael, B. An assessment of crime volume following

casino gaming development in the city of Detroit. Resident attitudes towards gaming and tourism development in

Macao: Growth machine theory as a context for identifying supporters and

opponents. A., Walker, D. B. Resident attitudes in a

mature destination: The case of Waikiki. J., Var, T. Elevated suicide levels associated with

legalized gambling. Art work from Zhangs

Beijing art gallery is also available for purchase. Harill (2004) identified socioeconomic

factors, special factors, economic dependency, residents and community

typologies as important factors that provide basis for explaining how

resident attitudes towards the impacts of tourism development are


We were not able to provide a response rate to judge the

representativeness of the sample. Community attachment and

attitudes toward tourism development. J. H. (1998). 72). 199-216). The biggest

divide in perception exists between recent and long-time residents.

Slight differences also appear between tourism workers and non-tourism


Wong, I. (2003). (2010). Journal of Travel Research, 34(3), 46-56.

Haralambopoulos, N., Pizam, A. (2013). When players win,

they receive “Mangrove” points that can be used to buy products

available in the casino such as an iPad 3G or a Rimowa suitcase.

Once luxury brands open outlets within the resort, customers will

be able to spend their points in those stores. Perceived impacts of

tourism: The case of Samos. According to Murphy (1985), “the degree to which a

community’s attitude and perception seem favorable is the degree to

which they can be expected to be supportive of tourism development (p.

85)”. This can help in selecting appropriate marketing or

educational strategies targeting different stakeholders, with the

objective to reinforce or alter perceptions.

Farh, J. Tourism Management, 22(5), 435


Grinds, E

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Laurie Macomber

Laurie Macomber

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