ESPN Deportes UEFA Champions League Telecasts Begin Today

m88 Manchester United FCTues., Sept.

ESPN Deportes, which will offer more UEFA Champions League matches than any television network in the U.S., will provide extensive, season-long coverage from the group stage through the final match. AS RomaWeds., Sept. Liverpool vs. Each match day, the network will televise selected matches LIVE, while featuring the remaining matches on short turnaround or tape delay. Chelsea FCWeds., Sept. Olympique Lyonnais vs. FC Porto vs. 8 Matchday #6**Match schedule still TBD

The ESPN Deportes coverage of UEFA Champions League will include three teams of announcers made up of ESPN broadcasting veteran Luis Omar Tapia (play-byplay), Diego Balado (analysis), Randy Alvarez (play-by-play) and soccer legend Mario Kempes, who will be making his debut as UEFA Champions League analyst. AFC Ajax vs. 23 – Weds. 16 1:00 a.m. 14, 2004– Matchday #1 to Feature Europe’s Best Clubs, Including Defending Champions FC Porto, FC Barcelona, Juventus FC, Manchester United FC, Liverpool and Real Madrid CF

ESPN Deportes will begin its extensive coverage of the 2004 UEFA Champions League season this week by featuring Europe’s best clubs, including defending champions FC Porto, FC Barcelona, Juventus FC, Liverpool, Manchester United FC and Real Madrid CF. Chelsea FC vs. 28 7:00 p.m. AS MonacoWeds., Sept. Nov. 20 Matchday #3*Tues., Nov. ESPN Deportes commentator Jose Hernandez (play-by-play) and Claudio Jijon (analysis) will compose a third telecast team to handle increased schedule of games. FC Bayern Munich vs.

– Columns from ESPN Deportes commentators Diego Balado, Jose Hernandez and Luis Omar Tapia and soccer analyst Vito de Palma

– will provide in-depth coverage of this year’s UEFA Champions League , including: . 15 10:30 p.m. FC Barcelona vs. Juventus FCWeds., Sept. FC PortoWeds., Sept. Werder Bremen vs. 14 11:30 p.m. 30 1:30 a.m. 7 – Weds., Dec. Celtic FCThurs., Sept. 2 – Weds. 29 2:30 p.m. 14 4:45 p.m. AS Monaco vs. 15 4:45 p.m.

“UEFA Champions League is a showcase for the best soccer players in the world, including many from Latin America,” said Lino Garcia, general manager, ESPN Deportes. 3 Matchday #4*Tues., Nov. “Many of our viewers are passionate soccer fans, and ESPN Deportes is proud to deliver season-long coverage of this great competition.”

– Telecasts of UEFA Champions League Highlights, a weekly 30-minute highlight program airing Thursdays of each match week hosted by Randy Alvarez reviews all the top goals and plays from the league. AFC AjaxTues., Sept. Manchester United vs. 30 1:00 p.m.

– Real-time scoring

– Telecasts of UEFA Champions League Weekly, ESPN’s weekly series airing Friday evenings during the UEFA Champions League season provides updates, interviews, features and historical pieces on the league. ET, just a few hours before the season begins. DonetskThurs., Sept.

Viewers are encouraged to call their local cable and satellite provider to inquire about the availability of ESPN Deportes. PSG FC vs. Nov. Leverkusen vs. Real Madrid vs. Deportivo La CorunaTues., Sept. FC Internazionale vs.

DATE TIME (ET) TEAMSTues., Sept. FC Barcelona vs. — Interactive chat sessions hosted by ESPN Deportes commentators two hours prior to the match

As a prelude to the start of the 2004 UEFA Champions League season, Luis Omar Tapia will host a chat on today at 12 p.m. 28 4:45 p.m. 14 7:00 p.m. Oct. PFC CSKA MoskvaTues., Sept. FenerbahceTues., Sept. 15 2:30 p.m. ValenciaTues., Oct.19 – Weds. AC Milan vs. 14 2:30 p.m. Werder BremenTues., Sept. In total, ESPN Deportes will offer coverage of 77 matches and up 186 original hours of UEFA Champions League programming. 28 2:30 p.m. 29 4:45 p.m. Real Madrid CFThurs., Sept. 28 11:30 p.m.

Additional highlights of ESPN Deportes UEFA Champions League coverage:

– Live commentary of selected matches

– Photo galleries

NEW YORK–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Sept. 24 Matchday #5*Tues., Dec. Celtic FCTues., Sept

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Three Teams that Are Favorites to Win the Soccer 2013-2014 Champions League

m88 They enjoyed every single moment of last year as they magnificently won another treble under Jupp Heynckes. However, we can guess by their overall performance, strategic wise, strength, weaknesses, and several more things.


Credit: Public Domain (Flickr): Author MahmousSilva720

Real Madrid

It is frightful for Madrid fans to think to be a runner up or to be semifinalist again this year. We know who were the last year Champions, the German giants Bayern Munich. He is a very intelligent and experienced manager; he achieved several major trophies with AC Milan, Chelsea, and PSG. The man who replaced Jupp was Pep Guardiola, the one who took FC Barcelona to its peaks; this man also introduced the famous tiki-taka.

The pair of Cavani and Ibrahimovic can do exceptional things for PSG and they can easily win matches single handedly. Nevertheless, if again they desire to win they have to be more wary because English, Spanish, Italian and French giants are very ambitious for winning the Champions League and they are very well prepared as compare to last season, some of them have brought some big names and some of them have hired notable managers.

It was not a bad decision by Administration, though they should have given more time to Heynckes and should have waited until he resigned because to be fair he was doing a tremendous job. It was not less than a miracle for Bayern Munich to win another treble. Therefore, it means he is the right man who can bring Madrid trophies, and maybe that is why Perez spends a lot of money around Ancelotti.

If we could look at PSGs history, they have not been a strong force in Europe, however it is imperative to mention about their capability of becoming a major club in Europe. Both of them are keen to score as many goals as they can just as they are doing in French league 1, however if they continue this in Champions League matches then for sure they can be strong contenders to lift the famous Champions League Trophy.


Credit: Public Domain (Flickr): Author Toksuede

Bayern Munich

In champions league Munich is one of the strongest title contender, it has become a habit of Bayern Munich to play semifinal each year. That day and now we can see where PSG was and where are they now, so, it would be unfair to not to credit the Qatari Investment authority.

Last years semifinalist is looking to grab the opportunity to win the Champions league for the tenth time. In addition, fairly most of the credit goes to Mr. Now that such names have joined the club, the expectations are very high from PSG because they have spent a lot of money to enable it to compete with the other European Giants.. Real Madrid is one of the richest Football club on the planet with an estimated wealth of 3 billion. Thanks to the Jupp Heynckes who brought the Bavarians Champions league. They can sign any big name they want, they stunned the entire football world when they announced to have signed Tottenham Hotspurs winger Gareth Bale in 100 million and bringing Bale signified the high aims of Mr. Fiorentina Perez (Madrid Owner).

With a new season, they have started with new boss Carlo Ancelotti, who resigned from his job, as Paris Saint Germans manager for his dream job was to manage Madrid. They did not even dream that one day they would be favorite to win Champions League, though somehow fate was kind to them, when suddenly a Qatari Investment authority decided to possess Paris Saint German. Wow what a marvelous season for Bayern Munich last year. With this size of squad, they can easily reach the semifinal again this year.

Now when everything is settled the fans are expecting something vibrant from PSG manager and the players because they brought several world class players to PSG, namely, Zlatan Ibrahimovic, Ezequiel Lavezzi, Alex, Lucas Moura, Thiago Silva, Edison Roberto Cavani Gomez, including many more young stars. Madrid is one of the most successful club in the history of Champions league, which makes them even more notable in this League.


Credit: Public Domain (Flickr): Author Aciloc10

Paris Saint German

They did well last season when they surprisingly reached quarterfinal, but unfortunately they were slapped by Barcelona.


Credit: Public Domain (Flickr): Author Villads Engel

The battle begins

Yes the battle has begun amongst the top teams of Europe with an unlike spirit of winning champions league. Heynckes, however many of us still cannot understand the decision of Bayern Munichs President when he announced that Heynckes will be replaced byby Josep Pep Guardiola i Sala.

It would be no surprise if they win another treble under Pep Guardiola this time.

However, it is too early to say the possible teams as to which of them can be champions

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Manchester United players and WAGs at UNICEF charity dinner

m88 Match: Federico Macheda and girlfriend Sophie Larissa HoughtonMatch: Federico Macheda and girlfriend Sophie Larissa Houghton

ByRik Sharma

Updated: 12:23 GMT, 13 December 2011

Chart-topping singer-songwriter Emeli Sande performed at the event, which was hosted by actor and broadcaster Angus Deayton and attended by several first team players and their wives and girlfriends, along with the boss himself.

Stalwarts: Albert Morgan (left), the Manchester United kit-man, with Sir Alex Ferguson (right)Stalwarts: Albert Morgan (left), the Manchester United kit-man, with Sir Alex Ferguson (right)

Anybody who witnessed Manchester United’s demolition of Wolves on Saturday might not think Sir Alex Ferguson’s side are in a particularly charitable mood these days.

Wright also got in on the Twitter action, saying he was having ‘a lovely night for such a lovely cause’, which Ferdinand promptly retweeted.

If the players are anywhere near as sharp as they were here, he should have no trouble cutting through the QPR defence.

Unlikely partners: Rafael and Fabio da Silva smile for the cameraUnlikely partners: Rafael and Fabio Da Silva smile for the camera

R&R: Ryan Giggs and Rio Ferdinand looking sharp at the UNICEF event

Boss Ferguson will hope he can have a similarly pleasant evening after his team visit Queens Park Rangers on Saturday. Also present and correct were ‘The Only Way is Essex’ star Mark Wright and ‘Coronation Street’ actress Catherine Tyldesley.

TV stars: Mark Wright and Catherine Tyldesley were dressed for the occasion

The event, hosted at Old Trafford, celebrated twelve years of partnership between the two organisations – the longest such link between a Premier League club and a charity.

Trio: Jonny Evans (left) with Darron Gibson (right) and Danielle Carter (centre, Darron's girlfriend)Trio: Jonny Evans (left) with Darron Gibson (right) and Danielle Carter (centre, Darron’s girlfriend)

United: David de Gea and Javier Hernandez looked like they were having fun

Stylish: Patrice and Sandra Evra on the red carpetStylish: Patrice and Sandra Evra on the red carpet

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But on Monday the Red Devils were altogether less troublesome than their moniker suggests, as they held their annual charity ‘United for UNICEF’ gala dinner.

Loved up: Michael Carrick and wife Lisa grinning, while Ashley Young and his childhood sweetheart Nicky Pike pose for the camera

Serial tweeter Rio Ferdinand mentioned the event on the social networking site and even gave a ‘big shout’ to one girl’s parents, who donated 10,000 to UNICEF so she could meet and greet the players

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Neymar Brace Helps Brazil Thrash United States in International Friendly

fun88 Neymar in action against United States in friendly. AFP

Yet Brazil almost doubled their lead three minutes before the break when Marcelo thumped a ferocious angled shot towards the top corner that Guzan did well to parry away.

Klinsmann acknowledged the Bedoya experiment had left the Americans exposed and swiftly replaced him with Williams on 36 minutes.

David Luiz released Neymar into acres of space down the right and the number 10 cut back inside only to have Stoke City defender Geoff Cameron sweep his legs from beneath him for a cast-iron penalty.

Dunga brought Neymar on at half-time and the Barcelona superstar, who will be suspended for the Selecao’s clash with Chile next month, made an instant impact.

Chelsea star Willian burst clear of two American defenders down the right flank and curled a looping cross beyond US keeper Brad Guzan.

Rafinha was the next to find the target, deftly finishing after an exquisite pass from Lucas Moura for Brazil’s third goal in the 64th minute.

Foxborough, United States: Barcelona superstar Neymar scored twice as Brazil thrashed the United States 4-1 to equal the Americans’ heaviest margin of defeat under manager Jurgen Klinsmann in a friendly international here Tuesday. (Click here for latest Football stories)

Veteran striker Hulk and youngster Rafinha scored the five-time world champion’s other goals.

The USA’s lone attack of the first half came shortly afterwards when Yedlin, the Tottenham player currently on loan at Sunderland, surged down the flank and crossed for Jozy Altidore, whose shot on the run was blocked.

The scoreline matched the worst ever suffered by the Americans under Klinsmann, who were beaten 4-1 by Brazil in 2012 and 4-1 by Ireland in 2014.

Another superb ball by Paris Saint-Germain’s Moura set up Neymar to make it 4-0 in the 67th minute, the Barcelona player shooting low through a crowd of USA defenders to beat Guzan once more.

- Enter Neymar -

The USA, looking for an encouraging display as they prepare for a crucial Confederations Cup play-off against Mexico next month, were run ragged as Brazil turned on the style at the Gillette Stadium in Foxborough.

Substitute Danny Williams scored a late consolation for the Americans, lashing home a 30-yard screamer in the 90th minute.

Brazil, who face a daunting opening to their 2018 World Cup qualifying campaign away to Chile next month, were always in control.

Neymar duly stepped up to rifle home the spot-kick — his 45th international goal — to make it 2-0.

It could have been worse if Rafinha had not dragged a shot wide with the goal begging in the 70th minute.

The South Americans dominated a one-sided first half, threatening to run riot against an experimental United States formation featuring Alejandro Bedoya playing in an unfamiliar defensive midfield role.

The Brazilians swept forward confidently and did not have long to wait until their early superiority was rewarded with the first goal.

As the Aston Villa goalkeeper dithered, the ball rebounded off the inside of the upright and fell kindly to Hulk, who cut back towards goal to wrong-foot defender DeAndre Yedlin to bludgeon home for 1-0.

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Barcelona gets favorable draw in Champions League groups

m88 Petersburg was grouped with Valencia, Lyon and Gent. Tuesday start for fans in Spain.

Europe’s four highest-ranked leagues meet in the group of Juventus, Manchester City, Sevilla and Borussia Moenchengladbach.

”Serie A, the Premier League and the Bundesliga all in the most competitive, demanding and exciting group,” said Sevilla coach Unai Emery, whose team is the first to qualify by winning the previous season’s Europa League.

Chelsea’s Mourinho guided Porto to win the Champions League in 2004 immediately before starting his first spell at Stamford Bridge.

His quest to be the first coach to win Europe’s premier club title with three different clubs – after Porto and Inter Milan in 2010 – starts in a group with Dynamo Kiev and Maccabi Tel Aviv.

Though Man United landed with the lowest-ranked top-seeded club in PSV, the group has depth with CSKA Moscow and Wolfsburg.

Bayern eliminated Arsenal at the last-16 stage in 2013 and 2014, though the English club will expect to advance ahead of Olympiakos and Dinamo Zagreb.

”It’s nice, against Arsenal, that we’ll meet two old friends from the national team in Per Mertesacker and Mesut Ozil,” Bayern captain Philipp Lahm said.

With UEFA separating Russian and Ukrainian teams in the draw, top-seeded Zenit St.

MONACO (AP) Barcelona got a favorable start to its title defense, Zlatan Ibrahimovic’s wish to go home was granted and Benfica was given the longest trip in Champions League history on Thursday.

The group-stage draw also means Bayern Munich play Arsenal for the third time in four seasons and sent Chelsea coach Jose Mourinho back to Porto where he won his first Champions League title.

Manchester United’s return after a one-year absence will be at Group B’s top-seeded club whose best player it bought in the offseason. on a Wednesday back home.

The group is completed by Galatasaray and Atletico Madrid, whose match in Astana will be a 4 p.m. 7 Memphis Depay can look forward to a Sept. 15 date back at PSV Eindhoven.

World football’s most coveted club competition set up many story lines for the 32 elite clubs, who will share 1.2 billion euros ($1.37 billion) in UEFA prize money over the next nine months.

Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo resume their duel for the all-time competition scoring record tied on 77 career goals, and Barcelona’s star forward seems favored to forge ahead.

Defending champion Barcelona will kick off at Roma and also play BATE Borisov and Bayer Leverkusen. 9. United’s new No. The top two in each group advance to the last-16 knockout round which begins in February.

. Messi routed the German side with five goals in a 7-1 win when they met in the last-16 round in 2012.

Ronaldo and Real Madrid landed in a tougher group with Shakhtar Donetsk and Ibrahimovic’s current and first clubs, Paris Saint-Germain and Malmo.

”One day I hope to experience the Champions League in Malmo on the pitch. The champion of Belgium is the second club making its debut at the elite level.

The six rounds of group matches end on Dec. Congratulations!” the Sweden great had posted on Twitter after his boyhood club advanced through the playoff round on Wednesday.

Ibrahimovic will be 34 by Nov. 25 when PSG plays at Malmo, which he left as a 19-year-old to join Ajax.

On the same day, Portugal champion Benfica will play at newcomer Astana – the further point east any club has played since the European Cup was rebranded the Champions League 23 years ago.

Benfica’s flight from Lisbon of around 6,100 kilometers (3,800 miles) across six time zones will mean kicking off in the Kazakhstan capital when it is 3 p.m

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David Beckham to retire from soccer at end of season

12bet It’s difficult because I still think I can play at the top level … “To this day, one of my proudest achievements is captaining my country,” Beckham said.

He started his career with Manchester United and also played for Real Madrid and the Los Angeles Galaxy, winning titles with all those clubs.

England dropped Beckham in 2006 in an effort to renew the team with younger players after a quarterfinal exit at that year’s World Cup. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. The Associated Press contributed to this report. He was blamed for England’s elimination from the 1998 World Cup for his petulant red card against Argentina, but scored the winning goal against the same team at the World Cup four years later.

Beckham told Sky that he found it difficult when his celebrity overshadowed his career as an athlete. I think I know when I’m ready … He has been giving his salary to a children’s charity.

“I want to thank all my teammates, the great managers that I had the pleasure of learning from,” Beckham said. Coach Steve McClaren recalled him the following year after a run of stuttering form, and he returned for the remainder of England’s unsuccessful attempt to qualify for the 2008 European Championship.

“As much as I say that doesn’t hurt me, of course it does,” Beckham said.

Beckham, whose forays into fashion and marriage to a pop-star wife have made him a riveting international celebrity, has two more matches left at PSG. “I’m fortunate to have been given many opportunities throughout my career and now I feel it’s my time to give back.”

2013 CBS Interactive Inc. He missed the 2010 World Cup because of an Achilles injury, but went to South Africa as part of Fabio Capello’s backroom staff.

On the international stage, Beckham made 115 appearances for England’s national team a record for a player other than a goalkeeper.

Speaking to Sky Sports, Beckham said “over the years when I’ve seen players retire, when you ask them they said ‘you’ll know when you’re ready’… I’m honored to represent England both on and off the pitch.”

Beckham spent four years in Madrid winning the 2007 Spanish title before making the surprise move to Major League Soccer, where he won the title twice.

There were highs and lows in Beckham’s international career. “I knew every time I wore the Three Lions shirt, I was not only following in a long line of great players, I was also representing every fan that cared passionately about their country. “I also want to thank the fans who have all supported me and given me the strength to succeed.”

Beckham had already started planning for his post-playing career earlier in the season, becoming an ambassador for Chinese soccer.

His last England appearance came against Belarus in October 2009. Beckham left United in 2003 shortly after manager Alex Ferguson accidentally struck Beckham’s eye with a football boot.

At left, watch the “60 Minutes” interview with Beckham from 2008.

“If you had told me as a young boy I would have played for and won trophies with my boyhood club Manchester United, proudly captained and played for my country over one hundred times and lined up for some of the biggest clubs in the world, I would have told you it was a fantasy. All Rights Reserved.

The 38-year-old Beckham, who recently won a league title in a fourth country with Paris Saint-Germain, said Thursday he will retire after the season.. I’m fortunate to have realized those dreams,” Beckham said.

LONDON David Beckham is retiring from soccer, ending a career in which he became a global superstar who transcended the sport.

“Nothing will ever completely replace playing the game I love, however I feel like I’m starting a new adventure and I’m genuinely excited about what lies ahead,” Beckham said. but I’ve always said to myself I want to go out on top.”

“I’m thankful to PSG for giving me the opportunity to continue but I feel now is the right time to finish my career, playing at the highest level,” the former England captain said in a statement.

Beckham responded to jeering at the 2000 European Championship with an obscene hand gesture to England fans, but was lauded by the same supporters a little more than a year later when his last-minute free kick against Greece secured a place at the 2002 World Cup.

With United between 1992 and 2003, Beckham won six Premier League titles, the Champions League, two FA Cups and the Intercontinental Cup

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Elixir Gaming Technologies to Build and Operate Casino Hotel on Cambodia Vietnam Border

m88 elixir Gaming also holds a casino license

in Cambodia and will build and operate Dreamworld Casino and Resort, a

casino hotel in the Takeo Province near the Vietnam border. 2, the highly-trafficked road that

connects Phnom Penh and the major cities in Southern Vietnam, the

property is positioned near a duty free trading zone that houses a large

shopping facility and is within 30 minutes of a famous temple in Vietnam

that attracts over one million visitors annually.

The initial plans for Dreamworld include 150 electronic gaming machine

seats and 20 table games housed on approximately 54,000 square feet

(5,000 square meters) of casino floor space and 50 hotel rooms, all of

which is expected to be completed in the fourth quarter of 2011. In addition, this extension of our gaming

operations provides us the ability to leverage our established presence

and goodwill in this market and increases our long-term control of our


About Elixir Gaming Technologies, Inc.

Elixir Gaming Technologies, Inc.

Based on the Company’s estimated project timeline, projected cash flows,

and the deferral of principal repayments until July 2011 on its

unsecured promissory note due to Elixir Group, Elixir Gaming anticipates

funding these plans from cash on hand and projected cash flow from


HONG KONG–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Elixir Gaming Technologies, Inc. (NYSE Amex: EGT) is a leading provider

of electronic gaming machines on a participation basis to the Pan-Asian

gaming industry, with a strategic presence and focus on the Cambodia and

Philippines markets. The Company retains ownership

of the gaming machines and systems and receives recurring daily fees

based on an agreed upon percentage of the net gaming win per machine and

provides on-site maintenance. For more information please visit

. (NYSE Amex: EGT) (“Elixir Gaming” or

“the Company”), a leading provider of electronic gaming machines on a

participation basis to the Pan-Asian gaming industry, today announced it

has been granted a casino license by the Cambodian government and plans

to build and operate its own casino hotel in the Takeo Province near the

Vietnam border. Those forward-looking statements include statements regarding

expectations for the business of Elixir Gaming, its working capital

requirements and future revenue and profitability, the project schedule

for its Dreamworld Casino and Resort and Elixir Gaming’s ability to fund

the Dreamworld project. Elixir Gaming does not undertake, and

specifically disclaims any obligation to update or revise such

statements to reflect new circumstances or unanticipated events as they


Capital expenditures for the initial phase, including the land and

construction costs, are estimated to be approximately $8 to $10 million.

Factors that could cause or contribute to differences include, but are

not limited to, risks related to the costs incurred by Elixir Gaming in

defending shareholder litigation and the outcome of any judgment or

settlement with respect to such litigation, Elixir Gaming’s inability to

place gaming machines at significant levels, whether the gaming machines

placed generate the expected amount of net-win, Elixir Gaming’s ability

to successfully execute its plans to build and operate a casino hotel,

the ability of Elixir Gaming to acquire additional capital as and when

needed, the ability of Elixir Gaming to collect revenue and protect its

assets and those other risks set forth in Elixir Gaming’s annual report

on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2009 filed with the SEC on

March 30, 2010 and subsequently filed quarterly reports on Form 10-Q. Dreamworld will also cater to

players with dual passports in the greater Phnom Penh region, as local

Cambodians are prohibited from gambling in their country. Such statements are subject to certain risks and

uncertainties, and actual circumstances, events or results may differ

materially from those projected in such forward-looking statements. The

Company intends to develop additional phases of the project dependant on

demand and the availability of capital.

Clarence Chung, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Elixir Gaming,

commented, “In an effort to better capitalize on the growth

opportunities that exist in our target markets and enhance long-term

returns, we have developed a two-pronged approach to our growth strategy

for our gaming operations as the provider of gaming machines on a

participation basis and as a casino owner and operator in emerging

markets in Pan Asia.

This press release contains forward-looking statements concerning Elixir

Gaming, within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933,

as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as


Dreamworld will include a casino and hotel on over seven acres (30,000

square meters) of land. The remaining balance of the consideration for the land is payable

upon completion of the transfer of the title of the land by the relevant

authorities in Cambodia, after which the Company assumes effective

control of the land. In addition to

being located on National Highway No. We intend to leverage our marketing expertise to make

Dreamworld a destination location for the mass market players in the


Forward Looking Statements

Strategically located within three hours drive of several major cities

in Southern Vietnam with a total estimated population of approximately

17 million people and approximately 125 miles (200 kilometers) south of

the capital city of Phnom Penh, Dreamworld’s primary market will be the

mass market players from Southern Vietnam. The total consideration for the land is $1.76

million, of which a deposit of $850,000 has been paid to secure the


Elixir Gaming cautions readers not to place undue reliance on any

forward-looking statements. This is expected to take place in early August 2010.

“As a border casino, Dreamworld will be strategically positioned to

capitalize on the attractive Southern Vietnam and greater Phnom Penh

feeder markets. The Company secures long-term contracts to provide

electronic gaming machines and related systems to premier hotels and

other well-located gaming venues in Asia. The project, which is named Dreamworld Casino and Resort

(“Dreamworld”), represents an important incremental leg of the Company’s

long-term growth strategy.

“The owner and operator approach allows us the potential for higher

long-term incremental returns on our operations given the ability to

collect 100% of the net win compared to 20-25% as per our existing

participation contracts. Phase one of

Dreamworld Casino and Resort is expected to be completed in the fourth

quarter of 2011

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Eyes on casino gaming in China: residents’ attitudes towards pre-casino development in Sanya.

m88 non-city center dwellers, and longtime residents v.

short-time residents. Tourism Review International,

10(3), 169-179.

As noted earlier, casinos are becoming a more important part of the

tourism economy, but the development of casino gaming is not without

controversy (Moufakkir Holecek, 2012). Although the Chinese are known for their propensity for gaming

(Blaszczynski, Huynh, Dumlao, Farrell, 1998), casino gaming is

illegal in Mainland China (Mainland China does not include Hong Kong,

Macau and Taiwan). Macau bets future on China: Asian highrollers.

Casino City Newsletter, 3(86), 2.

Giacopassi, D., Stitt, B. Japanese. These include the potential for

economic gain, environmental concerns, socioeconomic status, feelings

about the community, extent of their use of tourism resources, and

perceptions of the impacts of tourism on quality of life (Carmichael,

2000; Lankford Howard, 1994; McCool Martin, 1994; Urn

Crompton, 1987). Journal of

Travel Research, 37(2), 145-155.

411 N. Justice Professional, 14, 151-70.

Faulkner, B. Journal of

Travel Research, 34(3), 3-11.

College of Public Programs

Blaszczynski, A., Farrell, E. UNLV Gaming Research and Review

Journal, 7(2), 13-24.

H2: There is a difference in perception about gaming development

between I residents who live in city center close to the location of the

proposed casino I and those who live outside the city-center.

Jurowski, C., Uysal, M., Williams, D. Current media reports, however, indicate a

growing interest by the Chinese government in establishing casinos in

the Hainan Province. (2011). Retrieved on March 19, 2014, from Davis, D., Allen, J. A. L., Collison, J. (2011). Annals of Tourism Research, 21(1), 121-139.

Baldacchino, G., Tsai, H. Nevertheless, Mazon et al. The first approach is community

attachment”, which refers to an extent or pattern of social

participation and integration in community life (McCool Martin,

1994). Casino

establishment in neighboring countries not only means greater

competition for gamers dollars in the region (Moufakkir, 2002), but also

the likelihood for casinos to serve only local demand. Retrieved on September 16, 2013,

from http://NewsVOAcom

The structure matrix table (Table 7) shows the corelations of each

variable with each discriminant function. (2003). Distance effect on

residents’ attitudes towards tourism. (2007b). L., Vogt, C. N.. (2007). Tourism Management, 5(1), 40-47.

Like all forms of mass tourism, gambling tourism can result in

environmental problems, such as ecological degradation and pollution

(Lee, Kang, Long Reisinger, 2010). Empowerment and stakeholder participation in

tourism destination communities. These Pearson coefficients are

structure coefficients, or discriminant loadings. (2007a). Much participatory planning

and development in China has been, and continues to be, tokenistic with

I higher-order officials consulting residents and lower-order

administrators without seriously taking their concerns to heart,

although this appears to be on the cusp of change (Bao Sun, 2007;

Timothy, 2007). Traditional gambling in

Asia included sports betting, animal races, cards, and cockfights.

Asians used to gamble at home, on the streets, and in some traditional

simplified versions of casinos (Hsu, 2006). (2007). (1985). First mainland casino

“concept opens” in Sanya Resort. (1987). New York: Haworth.

McCool, S., Martin, S. Resident

perception of the impact of limited-stakes community-based casino gaming

in mature gaming communities. J. F., Anderson, E., Tatham, R. H. A discriminant

analysis was used to find out which of the perceptions variables

discriminate the most between the sample groups. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 27(4),


Wan, Y. Results suggest

that more attention should be given to the environmental aspects of

casino gaming.

Casino City. (2011). In A. (2001). Casinos, communities and sustainable

economic development. A

self-administered questionnaire, mail, or Internet survey, or a

combination of survey modes may offer less contaminated results

(Nederhof, 1985). T. R., Long, P. All rights reserved.

Vong, F. K., Lee, C., Yoon, Y., Long, P. Despite the proliferation of casinos,

gambling is still a controversial activity in many places, including

China. M. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(3), 503-526.

York, N. They pointed out that

concerned residents can be categorized into optimists, reserved

optimists, neutral, and skeptics. Casino gaming can be viewed as an economic development

in different guises (Felsenstein Freeman, 1998). Sanya’s population is more than 524,000

comprising some 20 nationalities, including Han, Li, Miao, and Hui.

Different populations may have different perceptions. The questionnaire was administered by a trained interviewer.

After completion of a questionnaire the interviewer would intercept the

next person in the way. (2004). Introduction to casino

and gaming operations. The SPSS output is

enormous, so only the most relevant information is indicated here.

Excerpts from the media (example in Box 1) support this claim.

Blume, C. The bar is 30,000 sq. In addition, Cronbach’s Alpha for the present study

is .825, which also validates the reliability of the instrument used.

The survey also elicited information about demographic characteristics,

participants’ length of residence, and whether or not respondents

reside in the city center (including the bay resort areas) where the

gaming development project was proposed. (2003). T. Abenoja, T. “Going forward, Macau and Singapore will continue to fuel

growth in Asia Pacific during the next few years, while other countries

in the region may look to encourage growth in casino gaming to gain

tourism and tax dollars. (2010).

Residents’ perceptions of casino impacts: A comparative study.

Tourism Management, 31(2), 189-201.

Respondents were asked the generic question “to what extent do

you agree or disagree with casino development in the city? The results

indicate that the greatest majority agrees while about one-fourth were

undecided. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14(2),


Given the Chinese interest in gaming and increased travel abroad to

gamble, the government has been assessing the feasibility of allowing

casinos in a few locations in China besides Macau. W. (1999). Gambling

studies show that socio-demographic characteristics, community

attachment, length of residence, and home ownership influence peoples

attitudes and perceptions of gambling and their support for it (Roehl,

1999; Vong, 2008; Kang, Lee, Yoon Long, 2008; Kassinove, 1998).

This study seeks to examine whether there are differences in perceptions

between tourism workers and non-tourism workers, city center dwellers

and those who live outside the city center, and long-term residents and

short-term residents. J. The questionnaires were randomly

collected from July to September 2011. Perceptions are influenced by socio-demographic

characteristics (Spears Boger, 2003), the length and place of

residence (Sheldon Var, 1984), and personal factors (Pizam, 1978;

Kwam McCarthy, 2005). S. Tourism dependence

and host community perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 17(4), 610-616.

Garrod, F., Fyall, A. Central Ave., Suite 550

Prentice, R. London: Gambling Compliance.

The Effects of Gaming on Destination Communities

Koh, W. (2008).Resident attitudes towards mountain second-home

tourism development in Norway: The effects of environmental attitudes.

Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(6), 664-680.

The literature is divided on the socio-economic benefits and costs

a casino brings to a community (Moufakkir Holecek, 2012). Journal of Real Estate Finance and

Economics, 42(1), 99-114.

Global Gaming Outlook. Casinos, hotels, and crime. (2000). Some 59.1% were childless, and

most were university graduates. E. Timothy, Ph.D.

Hyperinflation is another undesirable economic outcome of casino

based tourism. However, for the time being, gamblers do not win cash

prizes; their winnings can only go toward their stay in the hotel

or purchase of luxury goods at the hotel store. 61.1% resided in the city center; the

rest lived outside the city center.

Henderson, J. K. These include: the

potential for economic gain, environmental attitudes, socioeconomic

status, feelings held about the community, extent of the use of the

tourism resource base, perceptions of the ability to control the

development of tourism, length of residence, and perceptions of the

impact of tourism on the quality of life (Ap, 1990; Carmichael, 2000;

Faulkner Tideswell, 1997; Jurowski, 1994; Jurowski, Uysal

Williams, 1997; Lankford Howard, 1994; Liu, Sheldon Var,

1986; McCool Martin, 1994; Prentice, 1993; Um Compton,

1987). The American National

Gambling Impacts Study Commission (NGISC, 1999) unanimously acknowledged

the complexity of gambling issues, and noted that “along with the

real benefits of gambling come equally undeniable and significant

costs” (p. Beyond hardcore gambling:

Understanding why Mainland Chinese visit casinos in Macau. Journal of Social Psychology, 15, 263-280.

Hair, J. Retrieved on September 14, 2013,




Despite these negative outcomes, many observers have noted the

potential positive economic outcomes of casino-based tourism, including

employment and tax revenue (Carmichael, 2001; Lee, 2011). If the concern is gaining support for gaming,

then pro-development campaigns should target citizens who do not work in

tourism. Lessons from the Atlantic City casino

experience. (1997). Annals of Tourism Research, 17(4), 586-599.

Park, M., Stokowski, P. If more costs become apparent, then

optimists or reserved optimists about the proposed development might

change into skeptic residents (Rwan McCartney, 2005). In

this case, we are interested in learning which of the variables

discriminate the most between tourism workers and non-tourism workers,

between those who live in the city center and those who live outside the

center, and between longtime residents and short-time residents. Tourism: A community approach. Accordingly, the following hypotheses were tested

in this study:

Bao, J., Sun, J. Sanya residents seem to be undecided, or

unconvinced, although this might have little relevance to the reality of

economic and political life on the ground. (1991). Andereck, K. Just over half (52.2%) claimed to be

relatively new residents in Sanya City, while the remainder had lived in

there for five years or longer. non city center dwellers .940 43.326 28 .032

Longtime residents v. McGehee and Andereck (2004), however,

argue that the relationship between community attachment and its

influence on resident attitudes is not yet conclusive. As with the

McCool and Martin study, old-timers in the present study are generally

less favorable toward tourism development, and conversely, newcomers are

more supportive of tourism it.

Kang, S. J., Var, T. Moisey. J., Var, T. (1999). (1998). 217-231.

In China, overt gambling is often associated with evil, although

China used keno-like lottery games to fund the building of the Great

Wall (O’Flahertie, 1995). Since early 2013,

cashless casinos’, where winnings cannot be cashed but can be

traded for goods (e.g. J., Tsai, S. Given the results for people living near the

proposed development versus the others, as well as long-term residents,

urban planners should consider environmentally-friendly, casino-based

facilities and amenities. (2011). A matrix for resident attitudes and

behaviours in a rapidly changing tourist area. Church T. Recently, however, Hainan province is

exploring gaming as a potential revenue source by bringing more tourists

to the region and keeping gaming expenditures at home in China (e.g.,

What’s on Sanya, 2013; echinacities, 2013; Reuters, 2013).


Arizona State University

Ensereink, B., Koppenjan, J. Methods of coping with social desirability

bias: A review. In such a case

instead of having the envisaged expansionary economic effect, gaming

might result in a redistributive effect with a limited contribution to

the local economy (Felsenstein Freeman, 1998).

While social problems may follow casino gaming, there are a few

positive social elements as well. These impacts need to be monitored.

Confirming the results of other studies as noted above, short-time

residents scored the positive social aspects slightly higher than their

counterparts did (e.g., improve quality of life ([bar.x] = 2.97 compared

to [bar.x] = 2.74, with, t = 6,391, p = .012). Only minor differences were recorded between city-dwellers and

those who live outside the city. Journal of

Travel Research, 36(2), 3-11.

Agresti, A. (2008). J., Sheldon, P. (1996). Beyond the casino:

Sustainable tourism and cultural development on Native American lands.

Tourism Geographies, 6(1), 80-98.

Consequently there is a need to find out how local residents think

about such a controversial development in their backyard. Exploring social exchange theory dynamics in

Native American casino settings. Tourism Economics, 17(2), 457-464.

Fredline, E., Faulkner, B. A few researchers have indicated that resident attitudes toward

tourism could be impacted by the distance between their place of

residence and tourism activities (Murphy, 1981; Mason Cheyne 2000;

Sheldon Var, 1984). In May

2011, the Chinese media reported lottery sales of some USD $5.07 billion

during the first quarter of 2010, an increase of 24.5% compared to the

equivalent period a year earlier. Mapping resident perceptions

of gaming impact. Despite its illegality and moral stigma,

Chinese are aggressive risk takers and eager gamers (Casino City, 2002;

Hsu 2006; Timothy Tsai, 2008; Wong Rosenbaum, 2012). As Table 3 shows, there was no statistical

significance in economic perceptions between tourism workers and other

locals. Most resident surveys about gaming have been conducted after

the establishment of casinos in a community. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(2),



Lee, T. (2013). C. recent residents .914 62.664 28 .000

Table 7

Structure Matrices Table for Discriminant Analyses



Tourism workers v. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Keywords: Residents’ attitudes, gaming, casinos, China, Sanya

Carmichael, B. E. Research has also shown that people who

work in tourism are more likely to support its development than other

residents in the same community because it provides jobs, investment

opportunities and ownership potential (Fredline Faulkner, 2000;

Haralambopoulos Pizam, 1996; McGehee Andereck, 2004). (1997). Comparatively,

non-tourism workers think that casino establishment would increase

crime, addiction, family dissolution, divorce, and bankruptcy rates. Wallingford, UK: CABI.

Generally, resident attitude studies have identified factors that

influence perceptions of tourism. Organizational

citizenship behavior in the People’s Republic of China.

Organization Science, 15(2), 241-253.

Summary of results and conclusion

The only difference, although not strong, that exists between the

two groups relates to their opinion about the preservation of local

customs and culture, where those who live in the city center scored

higher than their counterparts ([bar.x] = 2.68 compared to [bar.x] =

2.50, with, t = 3,960, p =.047). These

studies reinforce previous research findings and support the reliability

and validity of the instrument in measuring residents’ attitudes

toward gaming. The

profits of foreign-owned casinos are often directed back to parent

corporations in other countries. Mapping resident

perceptions of gaming impact. Because of its natural, geographical and

cultural advantages, Sanya City is considered the most desired

destination for gaming and therefore a potential competitor for Macau.

It is the southernmost city on the Chinese island, neighboring Macau and

Hong Kong (Figure 1).

Sheldon, P. An integrated resort-casino for Singapore:

Assessing the economic impact. Residents’ perceptions on tourism impacts.

Annals of Tourism Research, 19(4), 665-690.

A Discriminant Analysis (DA) was also conducted. As already noted, the purpose of this study was to test

a series of hypotheses from the literature, and to find out which of the

perception variables are strong predictors between the sample groups.

First, the perceptions of Sanya residents about the potential of gaming

development in their community is presented.


Hsu, C. Tourism Management, 15(4), 247-258.

Phoenix, AZ 85004

Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5(1),


Perceptions of casino development-short-time and longtime residents

Tourism workers believe that gaming would increase community pride,

and increase recreational opportunities in the community. Recent residents and tourism workers

appear to be more optimistic than the other groups. Journal of

Hospitality and Tourism Research, 36(1), 32-51.

Ap, J. ‘Casino cannibalism’ may also result as casinos

begin to dominate the local economy, driving out established lodging,

food and entertainment facilities with their own monopolies on these

services, creating sink holes’ rather than growth poles

(Carmichael, 2001).

Mason, P., Cheyne, J. The Philippines created a regulatory framework for casinos under

President Marcos in 1976, despite having a grey casino market since the

1930s (Ashton Korpi, 2008).

O’Flahertie, S. (1986). Global investors watch how chips fall in Chinas

cashless casino bar. Influence of personal factors on Macau residents

gaming impact perceptions. China is

positioning Hainan as an international tourist destination,

approving the construction of 15 large resorts and 63 five-star

hotels as part of the country’s five-year plan. Tideswell, C., 1997. P., Andersen, O., Nellemann, C., Bjerke, T.,

Thrane, C. Most studies examine different endogenous variables that

might affect resident views, including age, income, gender, education,

and ethnicity (Andereck Vogt, 2000; Easterling, 2004; Harrill,

2004; McGehee Andereck, 2004).

The results of this study support the literature (e.g., Carmichael,

2000; Eadington, 1986; Caneday Zeiger, 1991) that, generally,

residents are somewhat ambivalent towards casino-based tourism

development. Planners and managers should be sensitive to

the environmental concerns of those residents and should communicate

what they are doing to minimize the impact of development on the

environment to reduce opposition based on environmental concerns.

Murphy, P. Tourism Management, 14, 218-27.

Over the past three decades, gambling has grown rapidly and gained

popularity all over the world. Singapore: Institute of Policy Studies.

Blaszczynski, A., Huynh, S., Dumlao, V. Journal of Travel Research, 27, 2-8.

Gaming communities differ from one another and from non gaming

communities. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(6),


Lankford, S., Howard, D. (2004). While such an evaluation for a tourism development proposal is

difficult because of different local variables (Pizam, 1978; Liu

Var, 1986; Sheldon Var; 1984; Perdue, Long, Allen, 1987;

Ayres, 2000), the case with casino gaming development is even more

problematic because so many controversies revolve around gambling

(Moufakkir Holecek, 2012; Timothy Tsai 2008).

Promoting tourist destinations rarely finds success without the

support of local residents (App, 1992). The Economics of Casino Gambling. Piazam (1978), among others (Andereck Vogt, 2000;

Caneday Zeiger, 1991; Jurowski et al., 1997; Milman Pizam,

1988; Perdue, Long Allen, 1990; Mazon, Huete Mantecon,

2009), found that residents working in the tourism industry were more

likely to support tourism development than those who do not work in the

industry. 88). In the same period, the gross revenue

of Macau casinos was USD $5.13 billion, a 57.3% increase from the

previous year (Kareem, 2011).

The sample consists of 711 cases. London: Prentice-Hall.

Kwan, A. (2005). H., Rudd, D. Therefore

more research is continuously needed to anticipate change and foresee

the consequences.

Reece, W. Gaming can also help stimulate

entrepreneurial activity within the destination community. One is increased community pride among

residents and the preservation of local customs (Vong MacCartney,

2005). (2006). Developing a tourism impact

attitude scale. Gambling is

currently only open to hotel guests, however locals will be allowed

to gamble too once the project is completed. The

Casino Bar marks the first time the Chinese government has

experimented with developing a gambling industry in the mainland

(Source: eChinacities).


While the Chinese government does not permit casinos in the country

outside of Macau, Zhang – ranked by Forbes as one of the country’s

300 richest people in 2012 I with $600 million – said Hainan could

become an exception. The casino bar, with 50 gaming tables now, is

currently open only to hotel guests, but when the resort is

completed, local residents will be allowed in. This is because the industry provides economic benefits

to them directly. (1998). Resident

support for gambling as a tourism development strategy. Differences in community

participation in tourism development between China and the West. Chinese

Sociology Anthropology, 39(3), 9-27.


Lee, C., Kim, S., Kang, S. Increased traffic associated

with casino clusters in Las Vegas has created pollution levels far above

the maximum standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency

(York Lee, 2010). Berlin:


MrGehee. The theory and practice of Chinese grassroots

governance: Five models. There are, however, more variables that discriminate

between longtime and short-time residents, with destroy natural

environment, increase water pollution, and increase congestion as the

strongest discriminators.

Um, S., Crompton, J. (1996). (2000). In the case of the United States, many casino employees

live in neighboring states (Chhabra, 2007a), so their earnings and taxes

are often leaked out as well. The sum of amounts of real wealth reduced is

the cost for those who are harmed” (Walker, 2007, p. Resident attitudes toward tourism

impacts in Hawaii. The questionnaire was written

in English and back translated to Mandarin Chinese. G., Nichols, M. Tourism Management, 2(3), 188-195.

Felsenstein D. (2004). Although some critics argue that indigenous people performing

their rituals and dances at resorts and casinos degrades the cultural

value of heritage traditions, others have noted how such activities can

help build solidarity and community esteem within a native society

(Mattern, 1996). Journal of Travel Research,

25(3), 27-29.

Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau. C. Likewise, in many countries, casinos

are staffed by foreign workers, many of whom send their earnings home as

remittances. Community

perception of casino gambling’s effect on crime in new gambling

jurisdictions. (2004). L., Black, W.C. Outlook in the 21st century.

Department of Hotel Restaurant Institution, 21(2), 15-17.

Milman, A., Pizam, A. Furthermore, of the nine other

perception items that are more linked to environmental issues, city

center dwellers supported more the statement that tourism development

would destroy the physical environment ([bar.x] = 3.75, [bar.x] = 3.58,

t = 4,499, p = .034).

Studies on residents’ attitudes toward tourism have identified

factors that influence resident support for tourism. One of

the most common community perceptions regarding gambling is that it

results in increased crime rates, and there is some research evidence to

support this (Grinols Mustard, 2006; Reece, 2010). (1990). (2004). Residents’ perceptions research on the social

impacts of tourism. UNLV

Gaming Research Review Journal, 8(1), 13-30.

Browne, M., Kubasek, N. meals,

accommodation), have operated on Hainan Island, with operators arguing

they have the government’s blessing, while the government maintains

they are illegal and have cracked down on them on more than one

occasion. By 2015, the Asia Pacific market will reach

$79.3 billion from $34.3 billion in 2010, an 18.3 percent compound

annual increase” (Global Gaming Outlook, 2015).

Perceptions of casino development–tourism workers and non-tourism


Respondents were asked to rate their opinions of perception

statements on a 5-point Likert-type scale with 1 representing strongly

disagree and 5 strongly agree. Contested enclave

metageographies: The offshore islands of Taiwan. First, a series of independent

t-tests were computed to check for differences between groups. Pearce R. short-time residents

Destroy natural environment .482

Increase water pollution .469

Increase level of traffic congestion .424

Increase quantity of littering .392

Making living cost higher .356

Preserve local custom and culture -.340

Increase visitors crowding .340

Increase noise level .336

Increase opportunity for using recreational facilities .317

Improve quality of life .309

Increase occurrence of alcohol and drug abuse .303

Improve working conditions .301

Note: Pooled within-groups correlations between discriminating

variables and standardized canonical discriminant functions.

Variables ordered by absolute size of correlation within function

COPYRIGHT 2014 UNLV Gaming Research Review Journal

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

Chhabra, D. Advocates argue that

gambling brings in much-needed regional income and jobs, while opponents

argue that it harms communities, families and individual lives (Wan,


Timothy, D. non-tourism workers, city-center

dwellers v. It was 29.2 percent in 2010, and it is

forecast to reach 43.4 percent in 2015 (Global Gaming Outlook, 2015).

Gambling has become an important part of the tourism economies of

several Asian countries since 1999, including South Korea, Cambodia,

Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Singapore,

Vietnam, and Macau, with several more countries considering adopting

casinos as a way of drawing foreign tourists (Ashton Korpi, 2008;

Kang Hsu, 2000). J. A detailed

analysis in Table 2 suggests that there is a belief that this

development base would very likely benefit the community economically,

but will have a negative impact socially and environmentally. (2004). Living costs increase for tourists and residents (Vong

MacCartney, 2005). Macau: Must Read


Jarowski and Gursoy (2004) studied resident attitudes in relation

to distance from tourist attractions and found that residents who live

close to the tourism resource base have a negative perception of the

benefits of tourism and are not likely to support tourism development,

probably because of fear that their ability to use the recreational

resources may be impaired by tourist crowds. UNLV Gaming Research Review Journal,

12(1), 15-28.

Murphy, P. In Tourism recreation and sustainability, edited

by S.F.I McCool and R.N. Retrieved on September 16, 2013, from


This study examined the perceptions of Sanya residents about the

proposed casino development and broader plans for gaming in their

community. While both

groups seem to agree on the negative externalities attributed to gaming

development, non-tourism residents were more likely to support this

activity as it might potentially improve working conditions, public

utilities and infrastructure linked to tourism, and increased

recreational opportunities for locals.

Gambling addictions are frequently to blame for social

deterioration, breakdown of families, loss of employment, drug and

alcohol use, prostitution, deterioration of mental and physical health,

and suicide (Blaszczynski Farrell, 1998; Chhabra, 2007b; Phillips,

2007; Wan 2012). Resident attitude

surveys have been used by planners and policymakers in order to gain

local support for tourism projects and initiatives. It is crucial, therefore, that residents are empowered in

decision making and that their perceptions and attitudes about tourism

are well understood by planners and destination managers. The spread of casinos and their role in

tourism development. P. In particular, the study evaluates the

difference in perception between tourism workers and non-tourism

workers, residents who live in the city center where the casino

development project is planned and those who live outside the city

center, and short-term residents and longterm residents. This study found differences in perception

between groups, and these need to be taken into consideration for

enlightened and strategic decision-making.

Nederhof, A. W. Australian casinos: Responsible

gambling initiatives, 1999-2008. The lack of

gaming opportunities in other parts of China has stimulated the growth

of casinos in Myanmar and Vietnam near the borders of China. The

results are presented in the structure matrix table. Residents

attitude surveys have been widely used in tourism to assess residents

attitudes towards tourism development (Davis, Allen Cosenza, 1988;

Garrod Fyall, 1998; Jurowski, 1994; Sheldon Abenoja, 2001).

Liu, C. Gaming

statistics. February 19, 2013. (2008, June 9). Freeman D. In this study, support for the

potential economic impacts is recognized by residents, while they also

seem to hold more negative perceptions regarding the social and

environmental impacts of casino gaming. M. This allowed the interviewer to acquire a

sizable sample of people who work and do not work in tourism.

Respondents were asked whether or not they were employed in tourism.

Once screened, they were briefly introduced to the research topic and

told the purpose of the study. Tourism Management,

21(6), 601-611.

H3: There is a difference in perception about gaming development

between I short-term residents and long-term residents.

Gaming as a source of entertainment and leisure has existed in Asia

for centuries. (1998). G. Nearby Japan, one of the most popular foreign destinations for

Chinese tourists, is also considering changing its laws banning casinos

and other forms of gambling as a means of improving the country’s

tourism economy. Resident attitudes toward tourism: A longitudinal

study of the Spey Valley, Scotland. Journal of

Gambling Studies, 14(4), 359-380.

Perceptions of casino development–city center and exurban


Mattern, M. (2008). The

variables which discriminate the most between these two groups are

improve working conditions, increase bankruptcy, and ‘increase

occurrence of crime’.

Braunlich, C. This is the proportion of the

total variance in the discriminant scores not explained by differences

among groups. A. In light of this change, national and provincial leaders

ought to heed the concerns of local residents, even though there is a

tradition in Chinese culture and under communism of conformity with

ruling classes (Farh, Zhong Organ, 2004). Changes in selected economic and social

indicators associated with the establishment of casinos in the City of

Detroit: A Case Study. Casinos, crime and

community costs. A baseline evaluation of casino

air quality after enactment of Nevada’s Clean Indoor Air Act.

Public Health Nursing, 27(2), 158-163.

Marshall, L. Arguments have also been made

that legalized gambling helps stem the flow of money out of the economy,

as locals will remain at home to play rather than spending their money

elsewhere (Gazel, 1998).

Goodman, R. Survey says Asia’s gaming revenue

likely to surpass that of US by 2012. (2008). R. Annals of the American Academy of Political and

Social Science, 556(1), 66-84.

The findings of this study suggest that residents are likely to

react differently depending on their length of residency. In O.

Moufakkir P. echinacities.


Saxion University of Applied Sciences

Easterling, D. Should we encourage expansion

of the casino gaming industry? Review of Business, 18(3), 9-14.

While Macau offers world class casinos, casino gaming is not

legalized in Mainland China. Measuring residents’

attachment levels in a host community. The interplay of elements affecting host

community resident attitudes toward tourism: A path analytic approach.

PhD dissertation. However, other

studies suggest that not all gaming destinations experience higher

levels of crime than non-gaming destinations (Moufakkir, 2005; Park

Stokowski, 2011).

Ap, J. Despite the

proliferation of casinos and the popularity of gaming, casino gaming

remains a contested economic development activity. L., Boger, C. Northampton, MA: United States Gambling Study.

Recent residents believe that casinos would increase income,

preserve culture, improve employees working conditions, increase

recreational opportunities, and improve quality of life. (1995). (2010). Gambling tourism also has the potential to develop

recreational and cultural opportunities for community members, improve

educational and health-care facilities, and preserve heritage sites and

living cultures through the economic benefits of gaming (Braunlich,

1996; Browne Kubasek, 1997).

Ashton, H., Korpi, L. However, while both mean scores tend to show support for the

social perception statements, the means of non-tourism workers were

higher. Casino industry in Asia Pacific: Development,

operation, and impact. The first casino opened in South

Korea in 1967. This study assesses the perceptions of residents

about potential gaming development in their community. UNLV Gaming Research Review

Journal, 11 (2), 31-48.

Resident perceptions of gambling and tourism

Harrill (2004) proposed three ways of understanding people’s

attitudes towards casino development. Retrieved on September 16, 2013, from


HI: There is a difference in perception about gaming development

between I tourism workers and non-tourism workers.

Spears, D. Abingdon: Routledge.

Caneday, L., 8c Zeiger, J. Simulating the impacts of

gambling in a tourist location: Some evidence from Israel. The

only form of legal gambling is the increasingly popular lottery. Journal of Political Science, 4(2),


The social costs of gaming tourism can be summed up as “a

reduction in social real wealth. Many researchers use the

structure matrix correlations because they are considered more accurate

than the Standardized Canonical Discriminant Function Coefficients

(Agresti, 1996). Community-driven tourism planning and

residents’ preferences. This approach holds that individuals who do not

directly receive economic benefits from gambling are not expected to

support further tourism development (Harrill, 2004; Kaltenborn,

Andersen, Nellemann, Bjerke Thrane, 2008; Oviedo-Garcia,

Castellanos-Verdugo Martin-Ruiz, 2008). Community attitudes to tourism: A comparative

analysis. The economic impact of opening a gaming venue in

Australia. M., Paradis, T. Gaining residents support for tourism and planning.

International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(2), 95-109.

Sheldon, P. non-workers .847 115.722 25 .000

City-center v. Support for gaming depends on

how the host population perceives the impacts of casino development

(Giacopassi et al., 2001). non-city center dwellers

Opportunity to gamble at casino in Sanya .323

Destroy natural environment .314

Longtime residents v. (1996). Identifying these can help in

decision-making. (2012). A series of

hypotheses were tested. Several

studies have found that, the longer residents live in a place, the more

they oppose tourism (Harrill, 2004; Lankford Howard, 1994),

although some studies in different contexts have found different results

(McGehee Andereck, 2004). Journal of Travel Research, 32(3),

29 34.

China Post (2013). (1985). (1978). Journal of Travel

Research, 50(3), 289-302.

Kaltenborn, B. In D. B., Organ, D.W. (1998). Legalized

casinos are widely viewed as a viable economic development tool (Hsu,

2006; Perdue, Long, Kang, 1995) and can effect economic,

environmental and socio-cultural changes in the destination community.

All three types of changes can be viewed as negative or positive

outcomes in the context of gambling tourism, and attitudes towards

gambling will depend on whether those changes are going to improve or

deteriorate one’s quality of life (Harrill, Uysal, Cardon, Vong

Dioko, 2011).

Moufakkir, O., Holecek, D. (1994). Some people re-mortgage their homes, get loans, or

liquidate their retirement funds to feed gaming addictions (Goldman,


Eadington, W. Public participation in

China: Sustainable urbanization and governance. The

dependent variables in this study are the 25 perception statements and

are based upon tourism workers v. Thus, Chinese wishing to play in casinos are required

to travel abroad or to Macau. More than half (51.6%)

were single, while 34.4% were married. The

rationale for undertaking resident attitude surveys during or after

tourism development in general or for a specific tourism development

strategy is to assess the perceived benefits and costs of the strategy

with the objective of controlling its direction towards a more favorable

outcome (Kwan McCartney, 2004). It should be noted that during data

collection tourism workers demonstrated more interest in this study than

did other residents.


Hospitality Business School

Goldman, A. Cole (Eds.),

Tourism, Power and Space (pp. M. The second approach comes from “growth machine” theory

where gambling is regarded as a driving force for a community’s

economic growth. Gendered social exchange theory variations

across the life span in casino settings. (2007). More research is needed among different stakeholders

on Hainan Island, including people in the resort areas and in other

parts of the island where tourism is not well developed, to understand

broader community perspectives on gambling and its future potential.

Discriminant Analysis

Perdue, R., Long, P., Allen, L. Following this, the market was dominated for many years

by the Paradise Group. London:


Mazon, T., Huete, R., Mantecon, A. A case series of 44

completed gambling-related suicides. The

literature argues that differences in perception exist between resident


One of the most obvious negative economic outcomes is leakage,

where money earned by casinos leaks out of the destination economy. (2005). (2009). (1993). (2012). 185). (1992). Burns (Eds.), Controversies in Tourism (pp.

125-143). They then propose that

tourism planners should take measures to protect the use of the resource

base for the locals or enhance the ability to use it. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Some studies find the longer residents live in a destination the

more they oppose tourism (Lankford Howard, 1994; McCool

Martin, 1994; Harrill, 2004). Residents’ attitudes to

proposed tourism development. “To some extent, the approval of gaming on Chinese soil is

inevitable,” said Gary Pinge, analyst at Macquarie Group in Hong

Kong. As Table 1 indicates, most

respondents were between 18 and 45 years old. A lambda of 1.00 occurs when observed group means are

equal (all the variance is explained by factors other than difference

between those means), while a small lambda occurs when within-group

variability is small compared to the total variability. The Discriminant Analysis shows that only a

few variables discriminate between the sample groups. It suggests that if people receive more

benefits than costs from an exchange, they will more likely be involved

in it. Owing largely to the potential threat of neighboring states

and territories allowing large-scale casino gaming, the Chinese

government is considering allowing limited casino development in

well-established resort areas, such as Hainan. More precisely, 15.6% strongly disagree, 18.8% disagree,

30.5% agree, 9% strongly agree, and 26% are undecided. (1994). The third approach is

“social exchange theory”, which focuses on resource exchanges

between individuals and groups. (2005). Matsu population jumps after casino referendum.

The China Post, 28 January, 2013. (2002). (1996). The social, economic, and

environmental costs of tourism to a gambling community as perceived by

its residents. One of the

purposes of DA is to investigate differences between groups on the basis

of case attributes, indicating which attributes contribute most to group

separation. Journal of Travel Research, 44(2), 177-187.

Dallen J. American Indian Culture and Research Journal,

20(4), 183-201.

Previous studies on resident perceptions of tourism and gaming

development have identified economic, social, and environmental

dimensions using measurement scales consisting of 10 to 30 items (Pizam

1978; Liu Var 1986; Perdue et al., 1990; Ap Crompton, 1993;

Giacoppacssi, Stitt Nichols, 2001; Spears Boger, 2003; Lee,

Kim Kang, 2003; Kwan McCartney, 2005). (1981). The table identifies the

largest absolute correlations associated with each discriminant



Gambling-based controversies can help destination planners and

managers learn from the mistakes and successes of others. A similar study profiling clusters by demographic

variables “could help authorities and casino operators label

various stakeholder groups at various stages of gaming development”

(p. (2006). (1995). L., Lee, K. A., Rosenbaum, M. , Kang, Y. Journal of Travel

Research 16(4), 8-12.


Casino gaming has been touted as a means of stimulating the tourism

economy (Goodman, 1994; Piner Paradis, 2004; Henderson, 2006).

Nevertheless, controversial issues arise whenever and wherever casino

development is considered (Janes Collison, 2004, Kang et al.,

2008; Moufakkir, 2002; Roehl, 1999; Vong, 2008). Development of the gambling attitude

scales: Preliminary findings. (2000). These

two variables and where inhabitants live in relation to the city are

important variables in the context of Sanya City and are examined in

this study. Inside Asian gaming. Taiwan,

too, where gambling is still illegal on the mainland but legislative

maneuvers are beginning to allow it on the peripheral islands

(Baldacchino Tsai, 2014), earlier considered building casinos

offshore on its Penghu Islands to attract players from China (Timothy

Tsai, 2008), although a 2009 public referendum in Penghu voted

down the plan (Baldacchino Tsai, 2014). Asian countries are awakening to the

potential of commercial gaming and finding innovative models to attract

players from across Asia and the globe, as many countries believe

gambling to be a lucrative source of revenue. New support (2012-2013) in

Taiwan’s Matsu Islands for the development of a casino there may

result in the establishment of a large-scale casino, and there are other

options being mulled around for casino development on Taiwan’s

peripheral islands and near the international airport (China Post,

2013). The purpose for conducting such a

survey prior to the proposed development is either to adopt the strategy

as a benefit to the community or reject it and select a more favorable

one. The case for other

perception items is also similar, in that short-time residents seem to

score higher on statements with positive connotations than those that

support a negative externality (see Table 5).

Chhabra, D. The hypotheses

here posited that residents who had been living in Sanya for five years

or longer were less likely to be positive about gaming development than

more recent residents. L., Zhong, C. (1990). Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, East Lansing,

Michigan: Michigan State University.

Handelskade 75, Deventer

Study Hypotheses

Oviedo-Garcia, M., Castellanos-Verdugo, M., Martin-Ruiz, D.

(2008). Planners and

investors are exploring ways to allow gaming for tourism development on

the holiday island of Hainan. The hypothesis was

based on the assumption that respondents who reside in the city center,

where gaming development is proposed, were more likely to express

negative perceptions of casinos because of the potential negative and

positive attributes that are associated with tourism development in

general. Factors predicting rural


Table 6 provides one way in the DA results of indicating the

relative importance of the predictors. (2001). S. Long-time

residents, however, think that the opening of casinos would increase the

cost of living in the community, alcohol and drug-use, visitor crowding,

litter in the streets, traffic congestion, noise and pollution levels,

as well as destroy the natural environment. Host community reactions:

A cluster analysis. Community leader

perceptions of the social and economic impacts of Indian gaming. (2008). London: Routledge.

Other researchers have studied the influence of inhabitants’

length of residence in the destination and whether or not they are

employed in tourism on their perceptions of tourism development. Journal of Business Research, 44(3), 223-229. . Beyond the rhetoric of

sustainable tourism? Tourism Management, 19(3), 199-212.

Timothy, D. I. A small lambda

indicates that group means appear to differ (Hair et al., 1998). The questionnaire

was piloted on 13 respondents.

Janes, P. These significant

values indicate that the group means appear to differ (Table 6).

Phillips, D. Perceptions of casino

impacts: A Korean longitudinal study. Journal of Travel Research, 44(2005),


Vong, F., MacCartney, G. The term wealth is not only money, it

is the individual value. Tourism impacts: The social costs of the

destination community as perceived by its residents. Betting on casino tourism in Asia:

Singapore’s integrated resorts. Eyes on casino gaming in Sanya: Making the case

First Mainland “Cashless Casino Concept” Opens in Sanya Resort

The Casino Bar recently opened at the Mangrove Tree Resort in Sanya

Bay. (2006). Resident

perception of the environmental impacts of tourism. Casinos are the next big thing. In 2002 Macau had 11 casinos; it counts 35 casinos

today (Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau, 2013). Wilks’ Lambda is the ratio of within-groups sums

of squares to the total sums of squares. Butler, Contemporary

issues in tourism development (pp. (1988): Social impacts of tourism on

central Florida. (2009) found that respondents whose

work was linked to tourism were also more critical about tourism

development than their counterparts, because the former have a deeper

knowledge of the potential negative impacts of tourism in general, in

addition to their economic dependency on this economic base.

Gazel, R. Anatolia, 18(1), 145-152.

Resident perceptions about gaming development

Wiley J. Table 4 shows that while all respondents appear to be positive

about the potential economic benefits of gaming, there were no

statistically significant differences between the two sample groups.

With regard to the social statements, both sets of respondents believe

this type of tourism development would create negative social costs,

such as increased use of pawn shops, crime, gambling addiction and

prostitution. This study aims to take a

pre-emptive approach to survey the situation before casinos are built.

In short, successful tourism development depends on the cooperation of

local communities (Lankford, 1994; Murphy, 1985). L., Farrell, E.

(1998). Casinos are

well-known magnets for other businesses that open to cater to the needs

of gamers (Walker, 2007; Moufakkir, 2002). In China, these results bear

unique and interesting implications. For the most part, decisions are

made not at local levels, but rather at national and provincial levels

and typically imposed on lower-order governments and communities

(Ensereink Koppenjan, 2007; He, 2003). (2007). Retrieved on November 25,

2007, from



Box 1. Respondents, however, were assured confidentiality and

anonymity, a strategy that reduces social desirability bias. The

associated significance value indicates whether the difference is

significant. Given

the negative and positive impacts of casinos, it is certain that

communities considering gaming would have some concerns about its

influences. P. For instance, Macau has a

gaming history dating back to the 19th century and was a monopoly-based

jurisdiction with Stanley Ho’s company holding the sole concession

for casino gaming from 1962 to 2002. Not all casinos

are equally successful business ventures, and not all casino developers

keep their promises to the community (Moufakkir, 2005).


Kwan and McCartney (2005) have developed clusters based on

residents’ beliefs about gaming in Macao. Journal of Travel Research, 30(2), 45-49.

Not all residents hold the same perceptions. Positive attributes, including improved quality of life,

preservation of local culture, or increased community pride, all scored


Lee, C-K., Kang, S., Long, P., Reisinger, Y. Annals of Tourism Research, 15(2), 191-204.

Data were processed with SPSS 20. The local government

is very supportive of the project, and is in the process of making

changes to the current regulations that prohibit gambling. Resident attitudes to tourism

in North Wales. Support for gaming development depends on perceived

economic, social, and environmental benefits and costs (Canaday

Zeiger, 1991; Carmichael, 2000). In many Asian cultures, betting-type games are an

integral part of peoples lives. Non-tourism residents were more likely to agree that casinos

would increase crime ([bar.x] = 3.85 compared to [bar.x] -3.48, t =

16,809, p = .001), gambling addiction, divorces, and bankruptcies.

However, tourism workers were more likely to think that gaming would

increase community pride ([bar.x] =2.92, t = 7,847, p =.005). Problem gaming within a Chinese speaking community. (2000). A residents attitude study about

gaming impact in Macau by (Kwan McCartney, 2005) resulted in a

response rate of 74.6%. The economic impacts of casino gambling at the

state and local levels. Resident support for

tourism development. It has been recognized

that tourism development is usually justified on the basis of perceived

benefits and costs. In many small gambling communities, tourist

traffic exceeds local traffic during high seasons, resulting in thick

congestion, driving hazards, noise and increased air pollution (Perdue

et al., 1995).

the Netherlands

Kang, S., Hsu, C. (2012). Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 763-784.

Harrill, R., Uysal, M., Cardon, P.W., Vong, F., Dioko, L.

(2011). Casino gaming and crime:

Comparisons among gaming counties and other places. Journal of Travel and Tourism

Marketing, 17(4), 45-62.

Reuters. (2004). (1984). Tourism Management, 29(4), 681-694.

Andereck, K. Legalized gambling as a strategy for economic

development. Annals of Tourism Research, 13(2), 193-214.

Positioning casino gaming development in the minds of residents

does not necessarily mean that it will be a success. G. Discriminant Analysis

was used to investigate differences between groups on the basis of the

attributes of the cases, indicating which attributes contribute most to

group separation (Hair, Anderson, Tatham Black, 1998).

Limitations and suggestions for future research

In 2010, Macau attracted 27 million visitors, of which about 75%

were from mainland China and Hong Kong, many of whom go for gaming

purposes. The negative items scored

higher among longtime residents, including an increase in alcoholism and

drug use, where longtime inhabitants scored a mean of 3.71 compared to

3.51 among the others (f = 6,130, p = 0.14). L., Mustard, D. jewelry, artwork) or services (e.g. Resident attitude

surveys can enlighten policy and development decisions (Harril, 2004).

Other studies suggest that resident attitudes about tourism may be

affected by the distance between their homes and the main tourism

activities (Murphy, 1981; Mason Cheyne 2000). A Framework for monitoring

community impacts of tourism. The social, economic and environmental

impacts of casino gaming in Macao: The community leader perspective.

Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(5), 737-755.

Moufakkir, O. Generally, like factor

loadings, 0.30 is seen as the cut-off between important and less

important variables (Hair et al., 1998). (2002). Therefore, it is important

to understand residents’ attitudes toward gambling from the

perspective of both benefits and costs to the destination. Residents perceptions and

attitudes towards Native American Gaming (NAG) in Kansas: Demographics,

policies, and future development. (1987). Respondents (residents) were randomly

intercepted by the interviewer in the streets, parks, hotels,

restaurants and at tourist attractions, and asked to participate in the

study. The Powwow as a public arena for negotiating

unity and diversity. They also found

that those who live far from the tourism attraction were more concerned

with the negative environmental impacts of the attractions. Their success may depend on whether local casinos

constitute a “destination casino”, which offers gambling

within a mega-resort context with accommodations, retail, meeting

facilities, and dining and entertainment opportunities. Property values sometimes increase so much that

it results in the displacement of locals who can no longer afford to buy

land or pay their property taxes (Marshall Rudd, 1996; Wiley

Walker, 2011). The residents’ perspective in tourism

research: A review and synthesis. P. In an exploratory study about

Macao residents’ perceptions of the impact of gaming development

(Kwan McCartney, 2005), perception items with the highest score

are similar to those in this study, and relate to economic benefits;

whereas those with a lower score relate to environmental and social


Jurowski, C. Cosenza, J. Stakeholder views of

legalized casino gambling in Taiwan: Taiwanese student perceptions.

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 6(1), 77-94.

Omar Moufakkir, Ph.D.

Getz, D. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13(1), 41-53.

According to Koh (2004), the Asian share of world revenue from

gaming was 22.4 percent in 2004. Here, the Lambda of 0.847, 0.940, and 0.914 are large,

which suggests that the group differences are small. (1988).

Segmenting local resident by their attitudes, interest, and opinions

toward tourism. (1999). Annals of Tourism

Research, 14, 17-37.

Piner, J. Notes on the social exchange theory.

Revista Encontros Cientificos–Tourism Management Studies,

Encontros Cientificos n.5 Faro 2009. (1998).

Multivariate Analysis. (2006). V. Political Geography,

40, 13-24.

Understanding resident attitudes toward tourism is valuable because

the community can either be supportive or antagonistic (Getz, 1994).

Community support is vital to tourism’s success because tourism

uses the destination environment and culture as a resource, and the

people are an important part of the product (Murphy, 1985; Timothy 1999;

2007). A theoretical

analysis of host community resident reactions to tourism. In particular, the study evaluates the difference in

perception between tourism workers and non-tourism workers, effects of

proximity to the proposed casino location, and community members’

length of residence in Sanya on their perceptions of the development.

Results may help planners and policymakers with their decisions. Annals of Tourism Research,

31(2), 296-312.

At the time of writing, Macau is the only place in China where

casinos are legal. Other forms of “illegal leakage”

also exist, such as tax evasion and money laundering (Eadington, 1999).

Thus, overall only a few variables in the model appear to be

important discriminators between the groups, with only three for tourism

workers versus their counterparts, namely improve working condition,

increase bankruptcy, and increased crime, and two for city and non-city

center dwellers. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(2), 371-391.

Liu, C. Management of

Environmental Quality, 18(4), 459-474.

Previous studies suggest that residents who work in tourism are

more likely than other residents in the same community to support

tourism because of its potential economic benefits (Fredline

Faulkner, 2000; Haralambopoulos Pizam, 1996; McGehee

Andereck, 2004). As Chinese spend

their money in new casinos across Asia from the Philippines to

Vietnam, pressure is growing on Beijing to keep more gamblers at

home. The interviewer made it clear that the

statements were hypothetical. Community support is critical to the success of tourism

because it uses the destination as part of the product.

Pizam, A. “With regional markets already vying for a share of the

Chinese gambling wallet, unless China brings gaming onto its own

shores, it will not only lose tax revenues to other countries, but

also the multiplier effect from the consumption spend (Source:

Reuters, 2013).

Kareem, J. UNLV Gaming Research

and Review Journal, 9(1), 15-28.

Literature Review

Roehl, W. 127-143). 10). (2004). On the other hand, longtime residents believe more

strongly that casinos would increase the cost of living (x= 3.86

compared to x= 3.65, with, t = 8,487, p =.004).

Walker, D. Casino revenues and retail

property values: The Detroit case. Residents support for tourism development will depend on their

perception of the benefits and costs resulting from this activity (Ap,

1990; 1992). Contemporary

Economic Policy, 28(2), 145-161.

eChinacities. Utilizing local concerns

and recommendations by the people who live in the destination will build

goodwill and help tourism to develop in ways that are in line with local

mores and social networks.

Jurowski, C., Gursoy, D. Table 5 suggests that while both groups seem to

agree on the potential economic benefits, recent residents tend to agree

more with the statement that residents’ income would probably

increase from casino development (x = 3.51 compared to x = 3.34, with, t

= 3,847, p =.050). Wallingford: CABI, pp. The present

instrument was based on 25 attitude items gleaned from the resident

attitude and gaming literature, largely derived from a comprehensive

list of gaming impact issues used by Lee, Kim and Kang (2003). When addicted

gamblers lose, crime wins. You bet there’s a problem. (1994). non-tourism workers

Improve working condition .466

Increase bankruptcy .403

Increase occurrence of crime .362

City center dwellers v. J. A. (2007). Also, as stated

earlier, tourism workers were more responsive to the questionnaire than

their counterparts, and therefore responses may suffer from social

desirability. In response,

there is a growing literature on destination residents’ perceptions

of tourism. (1996). An Introduction to Categorical Data Analysis.

Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Moufakkir, O. Review of Economics and Statistics, 88(1), 28-45.

Timothy, D. Street surveys took place in

mornings and afternoons. Journal of Travel Research, 39(1), 27-36.

Table 1

Overall Sample Demographic Characteristics (N=711)


Male 52.0%

Female 48.0%

Years lived in Sanya

Less than 5 years 52.2%

5 years longer 47.8%

Education level

High school or less 15.6%

Junior college 18.1%

Bachelor 46.1%

Postgraduate or over 13.4%

Other 6.8%


Below 18 5.3%

18-25 35.6%

26-35 23.6%

36-45 20.7%

46-55 9 1%

56-75 5.2%

Over 75 0.4%


Student 21.1%

Skilled worker 8.9%

Marketing sales 12.0%

Administrative mgt 7.9%

Technical staff 8.3%

Public servant 9.1%

Professional 12.1%

Unemployed 1.1%

Other 19.5%

Have children

Yes 40.9%

No 59.1%

Where they live

City center 61.1%

Outside city center 38.9%

Marital status

Single 51.6%

Married 34.4%

Divorced 10.0%

Widowed 3.9%

Monthly income

Less than RMB 3,000 49.8%

RMB 3,000-5,000 24.2%

RMB 5,001-7,000 15.0%

RMB 7,001-10,000 5.9%

Over 10,000 5.1%

Table 2

Residents’ Attitudes towards Casino Development in Sanya


Positive impacts

Increase tourist spending 3.69

Increase employment 3.83

Increase tax revenues 4.10

Improve infrastructure 3.35

Improve working conditions 2.91

Increase income of residents 3.43

Improve quality of life 2.86

Preserve local custom and culture 2.58

Increase pride of local residents 2.78

Increase recreational opportunities 3.70

Negative impacts

Increase use of pawn shops 3.86

Increase occurrence of crime 3.68

Increase addiction to gambling 3.65

Increase destruction of family 3.52

Increase occurrence of prostitution 3.72

Increase occurrence of divorce 3.40

Increase bankruptcy 3.64

Increase alcoholism and drug abuse 3.61

Making living cost higher 3.77

Increase visitors crowding 4.17

Increase quantity of littering 3.87

Increase level of traffic congestion 3.78

Destroy natural environment 3.67

Increase noise levels 3.83

Increase water pollution 3.64

Note: 1=Strongly disagree, 5=Strongly agree

Table 3

Perceptions of Tourism Workers and Non-tourism

Workers towards Gaming Development in Sanya


Tourism tourism

workers workers Total t-test p-value

Positive impacts

Increase tourist spending 3.6 3.76 3.69 2.779 .096

Increase employment 3.78 3.88 3.83 1.257 .263

Increase tax revenues 4.02 4.16 4.10 2.863 .091

Increase resident income 3.41 3.44 3.43 .119 .730

Improve quality of life 2.90 2.83 2.86 .519 .472

Preserve local customs 2.64 2.52 2.58 1.751 .186


Increase community pride 2.92 2.67 2.78 7.847 .005

Improve infrastructure 3.20 3.48 3.35 9.239 .002

Improve working conditions 2.64 3.12 2.91 27.774 .001

Increase recreational 3.81 3.61 3.70 5.520 .019


Negative impacts

Increase use of pawn shops 3.87 3.86 3.86 .009 .924

Increase cost of living 3.73 3.80 3.77 .841 .359

Increase crime 3.48 3.85 3.68 16.809 .001

Increase gambling addiction 3.51 3.76 3.65 7.251 .007

Increase family dissolution 3.42 3.60 3.52 4.468 .035

Increase prostitution 3.72 3.72 3.72 .001 .976

Increase divorce rate 3.31 3.48 3.40 3.880 0.49

Increase bankruptcies 3.42 3.81 3.64 20.863 .001

Increase alcoholism drug 3.54 3.66 3.61 2.033 .154


Increase visitor crowding 4.20 4.15 4.17 .387 .534

Increase litter 3.90 3.84 3.87 .477 .490

Increase traffic congestion 3.77 3.79 3.78 .037 .848

Destroy natural 3.66 3.68 3.67 .066 .797


Increase noise 3.84 3.83 3.83 .014 .906

Increase water pollution 3.64 3.65 3.64 .023 .880

Table 4

Perceptions of Residents who Live in the City Center and

Residents Living Outside the City toward Gaming Development

in Sanya

City Outside

center city Total t-test p-value

Positive impacts

Increase tourist spending 3.67 3.71 3.69 .140 .708

Increase employment 3.80 3.89 3.83 1.206 .272

Increase tax revenues 4.12 4.06 4.10 .603 .438

Increase resident income 3.36 3.53 3.43 3.550 .060

Improve quality of life 2.83 2.90 2.86 .479 .489

Preserve local customs 2.50 2.68 2.58 3.960 .047

and culture

Increase community pride 2.77 2.80 2.78 .133 .715

Improve public 3.32 3.41 3.35 .999 .318


Improve working 2.84 3.01 2.91 3.346 .068


Increase recreational 3.69 3.72 3.70 .091 .763


Negative impacts

Increase use of pawn 3.90 3.81 3.86 1.254 .263


Increase cost of living 3.75 3.79 3.77 .284 .594

Increase crime 3.65 3.72 3.68 .573 .449

Increase gambling 3.69 3.59 3.65 1.199 .274


Increase family 3.54 3.49 3.52 .244 .621


Increase prostitution 3.70 3.75 3.72 .398 .528

Increase divorce 3.42 3.39 3.40 .118 .731

Increase bankruptcies 3.61 3.67 3.64 .381 .537

Increase alcoholism 3.62 3.60 3.61 .035 .851

drug use

Increase visitor 4.22 4.11 4.17 2.099 .148


Increase litter 3.93 3.79 3.87 2.985 .084

Increase traffic 3.84 3.70 3.78 2.973 .085


Destroy natural 3.75 3.56 3.67 4.499 .034


Increase noise 3.86 3.79 3.83 .664 .415

Increase water pollution 3.69 3.58 3.64 1.433 .232

Table 5

Perceptions of Recent and Longtime Residents

towards Gaming Development in Sanya

Recent Longtime

residents residents Total

Positive impacts

Increase tourist spending 3.71 3.66 3.69

Increase employment 3.83 3.84 3.83

Increase tax revenues 4.09 4.11 4.10

Increase resident income 3.51 3.34 3.43

Improve quality of life 2.97 2.74 2.86

Preserve local customs culture 2.70 2.45 2.58

Increase community pride 2.80 2.76 2.78

Improve public infrastructure 3.33 3.38 3.35

Improve working conditions 3.02 2.79 2.91

Increase recreational 3.81 3.59 3.70


Negative impacts

Increase use of pawn shops 3.86 3.87 3.86

Increase cost of living 3.65 3.89 3.77

Increase crime 3.62 3.75 3.68

Increase gambling addiction 3.60 3.70 3.65

Increase family dissolution 3.46 3.58 3.52

Increase prostitution 3.66 3.78 3.72

Increase divorce 3.36 3.45 3.40

Increase bankruptcies 3.60 3.68 3.64

Increase alcoholism drug use 3.51 3.71 3.61

Increase visitor crowding 4.07 4.28 4.17

Increase litter 3.74 4.01 3.87

Increase traffic congestion 3.64 3.93 3.78

Destroy natural environment 3.51 3.84 3.67

Increase noise 3.72 3.96 3.83

Increase water pollution 3.48 3.82 3.64

t-test p-value

Positive impacts

Increase tourist spending .258 .612

Increase employment .010 .922

Increase tax revenues .063 .803

Increase resident income 3.847 .050

Improve quality of life 6.391 .012

Preserve local customs culture 7.740 .006

Increase community pride .210 .647

Improve public infrastructure .287 .593

Improve working conditions 6.041 .014

Increase recreational 6.740 .010


Negative impacts

Increase use of pawn shops .027 .870

Increase cost of living 8.487 .004

Increase crime 2.010 .157

Increase gambling addiction 1.176 .278

Increase family dissolution 1.705 .192

Increase prostitution 2.072 .150

Increase divorce .967 .326

Increase bankruptcies .830 .362

Increase alcoholism drug use 6.130 .014

Increase visitor crowding 7.732 .006

Increase litter 10.267 .001

Increase traffic congestion 12.043 .001

Destroy natural environment 15.526 .001

Increase noise 7.547 .006

Increase water pollution 14.718 .001

Table 6

Wilks’ Lambdas for Discriminant Analyses

Wilks’ Chi-

Lambda square df Sig.

Tourism workers v. Gaming in the USA:

Historical development, controversies and current status. (2001). S. Las Vegas Sun. The most discriminating

variables between these two groups are destroy natural environment,

increase water pollution, ‘increase traffic congestion’, and

“increase littering. Implications for

planning and communication are given.

Besides residents’ attitudes, the successes or failures of

casinos may be determined by management practices, marketing activities,

competition, and government regulations. The relationship between

residents’ attitudes toward tourism and tourism development

options. M. The American Gaming Association estimated that

casino gambling revenues in Asia will likely surpass those in the USA in

the next several years, measuring in the billions of dollars annually

(Blume, 2008).

He, B. Retrieved on September 16,

2013, from http://www. Residents’ attitudes toward tourism

development: A literature review with implications for tourism planning.

Journal of Planning Literature, 18(3), 251-266.

Kassinove, J. Casino jobs

are often associated with higher salaries than other service-sector

jobs, and gaming taxes are seen as a “painless” way of

increasing taxes with less local opposition than increases in general

sales tax (Walker, 2007, p. Quality of life issues in a casino

destination. Asian

Business Review, (February), 70.

Perdue, R. The casino and online gaming market to 2015.

Retrieved on September 26, 2013, from

Harrill, R. The case for supporting gaming

will then rest on enlightened decisions and policies based not only on

the benefits and costs of the proposed gaming development, but also on

the consideration of other economic alternatives. If further development produces apparent benefits, residents

attitudes might also change. Malaysia opened its Genting Highlands casino in

1971. This descriptive technique successively identifies the

linear combination of attributes known as canonical discriminant

functions (equations) which contribute maximally to group separation. Residents’

attitudes may change following the life cycle and development stage of

the economic activity or destination, as well as its successes or

failures. (1994). (2000). (2014). Resident

attitude surveys are crucial in providing decision-making data about the

feelings of residents. In addition, the paper aims to identify which

perceptions diverge most between sample groups. The focus of these should be how gaming will contribute to the

working conditions of tourism employees and how crime and other social

ills will be mitigated. (1994). Participatory planning: A view of tourism in

Indonesia. C., Mccartney, C. m, designed to look like a casino and

features the same licensing practices and rules as casinos in

Macau. Tourism Management, 24(1), 45-55.

Carmichael, B. An assessment of crime volume following

casino gaming development in the city of Detroit. Resident attitudes towards gaming and tourism development in

Macao: Growth machine theory as a context for identifying supporters and

opponents. A., Walker, D. B. Resident attitudes in a

mature destination: The case of Waikiki. J., Var, T. Elevated suicide levels associated with

legalized gambling. Art work from Zhangs

Beijing art gallery is also available for purchase. Harill (2004) identified socioeconomic

factors, special factors, economic dependency, residents and community

typologies as important factors that provide basis for explaining how

resident attitudes towards the impacts of tourism development are


We were not able to provide a response rate to judge the

representativeness of the sample. Community attachment and

attitudes toward tourism development. J. H. (1998). 72). 199-216). The biggest

divide in perception exists between recent and long-time residents.

Slight differences also appear between tourism workers and non-tourism


Wong, I. (2003). (2010). Journal of Travel Research, 34(3), 46-56.

Haralambopoulos, N., Pizam, A. (2013). When players win,

they receive “Mangrove” points that can be used to buy products

available in the casino such as an iPad 3G or a Rimowa suitcase.

Once luxury brands open outlets within the resort, customers will

be able to spend their points in those stores. Perceived impacts of

tourism: The case of Samos. According to Murphy (1985), “the degree to which a

community’s attitude and perception seem favorable is the degree to

which they can be expected to be supportive of tourism development (p.

85)”. This can help in selecting appropriate marketing or

educational strategies targeting different stakeholders, with the

objective to reinforce or alter perceptions.

Farh, J. Tourism Management, 22(5), 435


Grinds, E

Important link

Poker tournament gets high-tech chips after casino cheating scandal

m88 calls to a number registered to him in Fayetteville were met with a constant busy signal Tuesday, and it could not be determined if he has hired an attorney.

In January, the casino was forced to suspend an event at its Winter Open after suspicions that someone introduced counterfeit chips. About $800,000 in prize money was already paid out before the fake chips were discovered.

The Borgata also will add more staff and will do more chip counts each day during its tournaments.

Maintenance was called, and they found the chips, with a tournament value of 2.7 million, although they had no actual cash value.

Part of the new security measures will include spot checks of chips in play during games.

Lusardi is still in custody awaiting trial. They were approved by New Jersey gambling regulators for use in tournaments.

The event under scrutiny was the tournament’s Big Stack, No Limit Hold `Em event. But the chips clogged the pipes, and guests on the floor below complained that water was dripping into their rooms.

“We will be checking chips randomly throughout the day using a new process involving the UV lights,” Lupo said. A North Carolina man who won $6,814 during the tournament, Christian Lusardi, was arrested on charges including theft and rigging a public contest.

“This was very expensive, but very necessary,” said Joe Lupo, the casino’s senior vice president. He described the checks as “part of the new normal.”

The Borgata Hotel Casino Spa told The Associated Press it was using new chips for its Spring Open poker tournament that began Tuesday.

The new, more sophisticated chips combine several design and technology elements in use in the industry.

A joint investigation by the New Jersey State Police and the state Division of Gaming Enforcement continues, and $1.5 million in prize money is still on hold pending its outcome. There were 27 people remaining in the contest when play was suspended.. –  A cheating scandal at a casino poker tournament has led to new security measures, including chips that are more intricate, have more colors and include an authentication element that can be checked under ultraviolet light.

Authorities said Lusardi, after suspecting the fake chips had been noticed, flushed them down the toilet in his hotel room at Harrah’s Resort Atlantic City, where he had been staying. “In order to have the biggest tournaments in Atlantic City and as the market leader, we need to ensure the integrity of the games.”


Home Page

Why Is Fantasy Sports Considered A Game Of Skill And Sports Betting Is Not?

m88 draftKings offers daily and weekly contests for cash prizes.. The sports leagues who have aligned with DraftKings, FanDuel and others sleep well at night with that distinction and enjoy the added revenue stream fantasy brings.

There’s a school of thought that the increasing acceptance of fantasy by the leagues has no bearing on its stand on sports betting. Whether fantasy could continue to prosper if sports betting were legal nationwide remains to be seen.

What is confusing is why fantasy sports is legal as a game of skill but sports betting is not in 46 states. Fantasy sports is a multi-billion dollar industry and the news earlier this month that Walt Disney is reportedly investing about $250 million for a 20 percent interest in Boston-based DraftKings will only hasten its legitimacy and growth. Making an educated bet can hardly be considered a game of chance like playing the lottery. But they have no such concerns about the millions bet annually illegally or the cash doled out on fantasy. The fact that Disney owns sports giant ESPN makes the stake all the more compelling.

“They’ve drawn a line of demarcation between fantasy and gaming,” said Reed Bergman, CEO and president of Playbook, a sports marketing agency. What will be fascinating to see is how ESPN separates real sports from fantasy. New Jersey is waiting for a ruling on an appeal that would allow it to offer sports betting in casinos and at racetracks but it’s unlikely to win.

And while the NBA, MLB and even the NFL are embracing fantasy, they are still in court fighting the spread of sports betting mainly on the grounds it will increase, in their view, the likelihood of games being fixed. “You’re dealing with a separation of church and state issue,” added Bergman.

What’s interesting is fantasy sites avoid being categorized as gambling, which is illegal in most states and Canada, because they offer “games of skill”. While that may be true – at least for now – the spread of fantasy could eventually change the atmosphere among the public and influence the league offices and courts

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Bowl projections: Alabama, Ohio State on track for title game


Alamodome, San Antonio

Dec. Bowling Green

Marmot Boca Raton Bowl

Schlabach: Pittsburgh vs. 26, 11 a.m. (ABC)

Schlabach: Connecticut vs. 29, 9 p.m. 28, 5:30 p.m. (ESPN)

Mercedes-Benz Superdome, New Orleans

Jan. 31, 11 a.m. Texas Tech

New Era Pinstripe Bowl

Ford Field, Detroit

Dec. 30, 3:30 p.m. 30, 8 p.m. 2, 8:30 p.m. Stanford

McMurphy: Michigan vs. 23, 1 p.m. South Florida

Quick Lane Bowl

Schlabach: South Alabama vs. 22, 7 p.m. Miami

Valero Alamo Bowl

Schlabach: Florida State vs. Utah State

McMurphy:?Texas San Antonio vs. Petersburg, Florida

Dec. Oklahoma State

Foster Farms Bowl

Camping World Stadium, Orlando, Florida

Dec. USC

Franklin American Mortgage Music City Bowl

Navy-Marine Corps. UTEP

McMurphy: Utah State vs. Petersburg Bowl

Legion Field, Birmingham, Alabama

Dec. (ESPN)

Tropicana Field, St. (ESPN)

Chase Field, Phoenix

Dec. East Carolina

McMurphy: Georgia Tech vs.

Schlabach:?Syracuse vs. (ESPN)

Schlabach: Minnesota vs. Stanford

Allstate Sugar Bowl

University of Phoenix Stadium, Glendale, Arizona

Saturday, Dec. Indiana

McMurphy:?NC State vs. (ESPN)

Schlabach: Penn State vs. Air Force

St. Georgia Southern

R L Carriers New Orleans Bowl

Schlabach: Wisconsin vs. 27, 10:15 p.m. Washington State

Zaxby’s Heart of Dallas Bowl

Schlabach: Old Dominion vs. Kansas State

McMurphy:?Wake Forest vs. (ESPN)

Schlabach: LSU vs. Bowling Green

McMurphy: South Alabama vs. Southern Miss

McMurphy:?UL Lafayette vs. USC

McMurphy:?Boise State vs. 31, 11 a.m. Western Michigan

Hawai’i Bowl

Schlabach: Cincinnati vs. (ESPN)

Schlabach:?Duke vs. Western Kentucky

McMurphy: Penn State vs. Western Kentucky

Military Bowl presented by Northrop Grumman

Georgia Dome, Atlanta

Saturday, Dec. Florida

Goodyear Cotton Bowl Classic?

Liberty Bowl, Memphis, Tennessee

Dec. Navy

McMurphy: West Virginia vs. (ESPN)

Bank of America Stadium, Charlotte, North Carolina

Dec. (ESPN)

NRG Stadium, Houston

Dec. (ESPN)

Schlabach: Auburn vs. 27, 3:30 p.m. Houston

College Football Playoff at the Fiesta Bowl

Nissan Stadium, Nashville, Tennessee

Dec. (ESPN)

Schlabach:?Washington vs.?Texas A&M?

McMurphy: Washington vs. Texas Tech

McMurphy: Arizona vs. 26, 2:30 p.m. 24, 8 p.m. San Diego State

McMurphy: BYU vs. Arizona State

McMurphy: North Carolina vs. 28, 2 p.m. Colorado

Belk Bowl

Ladd-Peebles Stadium, Mobile, Alabama

Dec. 30, 2 p.m. Oklahoma

McMurphy: Georgia vs. New Mexico

McMurphy: Middle Tennessee vs. Florida

McMurphy: Virginia Tech vs. (ESPN2)

Amon G. 20, 7 p.m. Texas

Marlins Park, Miami

Dec. Ohio State

McMurphy: Alabama vs. Illinois

Camping World Independence Bowl

Schlabach:?Colorado vs. 17, 7 p.m. Ole Miss

McMurphy: Nebraska vs. (ESPN)

Schlabach: Middle Tennessee vs. Army

McMurphy: Connecticut vs. Navy

Dollar General Bowl

Schlabach: Louisiana Tech vs. Oregon

AutoZone Liberty Bowl

University Stadium, Albuquerque

Dec. 17, 3:30 p.m. 17, 5:30 p.m. (ESPN)

Schlabach: West Virginia vs. Southern Miss

Miami Beach Bowl

Schlabach:?Georgia vs. Houston

McMurphy: Alabama vs. Western Michigan

McMurphy: Appalachian State vs. Ohio State

Bowl schedule

Arizona Stadium, Tucson, Arizona

Dec. (ESPN)

Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York

Dec. (ESPN)

Schlabach: BYU vs. 30, noon (ESPN)

Raymond James Stadium, Tampa, Florida

Monday, Jan. (ESPN)

Schlabach: Memphis vs. South Carolina

McMurphy:?Baylor vs. Tulsa

Lockheed Martin Armed Forces Bowl

Schlabach: Louisville vs. (ESPN)

Schlabach: Virginia Tech vs. (ESPN)

Schlabach: Michigan vs. Utah

McMurphy:?Indiana vs. Texas A&M

NOVA Home Loans Arizona Bowl

Thomas Robinson Stadium, Nassau, Bahamas

Dec. Carter Stadium, Fort Worth, Texas

Dec. Nevada

Buffalo Wild Wings Citrus Bowl

Cotton Bowl Stadium, Dallas

Dec. Stadium, Annapolis, Maryland

Dec. Tennessee

McMurphy: Wisconsin vs. Notre Dame

McMurphy: Clemson vs. Ohio State

College Football Playoff National Championship

Schlabach: Michigan State vs. 27, noon (ESPN)

Schlabach: Alabama vs. TCU

McMurphy: Louisville vs. Northern Illinois

Popeyes Bahamas Bowl

Hard Rock Stadium, Miami Gardens, Florida

Dec. Northwestern

McMurphy: Pittsburgh vs. 23, 8 p.m. Akron

McMurphy: Cincinnati vs. Arkansas

McMurphy: TCU vs. (CBS)

Schlabach: Alabama vs. Ohio State

McMurphy: Florida State vs. (ESPN)

Sun Bowl Stadium, El Paso, Texas

Dec. North Carolina

McMurphy: Arkansas vs. 27, 7 p.m. Toledo

AutoNation Cure Bowl

AT&T Stadium, Arlington, Texas

Jan. (ESPN)

FAU Football Stadium, Boca Raton, Florida

Dec. Tulsa

McMurphy:?Boston College vs. (ESPN)

Schlabach: Georgia Tech vs. Toledo

McMurphy: New Mexico vs. 28, 8:30 p.m. Oregon

McMurphy: Michigan State vs. Minnesota

Russell Athletic Bowl

Schlabach:?NC State vs. Troy

McMurphy:?UCF vs. 21, 9 p.m. 29, 2 p.m. 9, 2017, TBD (ESPN)

Gildan New Mexico Bowl

Cramton Bowl, Montgomery, Alabama

Dec. Miami

McMurphy: Ole Miss vs. South Florida

McMurphy: Marshall vs. 31, TBD (ESPN)

Qualcomm Stadium, San Diego, California

Dec. 23, 4:30 p.m. Auburn

Birmingham Bowl

Raymond James Stadium, Tampa, Florida

Jan. Arizona State

Raycom Media Camellia Bowl

Independence Stadium, Shreveport, Louisiana

Dec. (CBSSN)

Mercedes-Benz Superdome, New Orleans

Dec. 17, 9 p.m. San Diego State

Famous Idaho Potato Bowl

Schlabach: Texas vs. 30, TBD?

Qualcomm Stadium, San Diego, California

Dec. (ABC)

Schlabach: Clemson vs. (FOX)

Albertsons Stadium, Boise, Idaho

Dec. 28, 9 p.m. Utah

AdvoCare V100 Texas Bowl

Schlabach:?Oklahoma State vs. SMU

Holiday Bowl . Notre Dame

Rose Bowl Game Presented by Northwestern Mutual

Schlabach: Marshall vs. 2, 5 p.m. South Carolina

Hyundai Sun Bowl

Schlabach:?Boise State vs. Memphis

San Diego County Credit Union Poinsettia Bowl

EverBank Field, Jacksonville, Florida


Motel 6 Cactus Bowl

Rose Bowl, Pasadena, California


McMurphy: Oklahoma vs. 2, 1 p.m. (ESPN)

Schlabach: Baylor vs. 31, TBD (ESPN)

Sam Boyd Stadium, Las Vegas

Dec. Iowa

Capital One Orange Bowl?

Schlabach:?Georgia Southern vs. (ESPN)

Aloha Stadium, Honolulu

Dec. LSU

Outback Bowl

Schlabach: Appalachian State vs. (ESPN)

(Note: All times Eastern)

College Football Playoff semifinals College Football Playoff at the Chick-fil-A Peach Bowl

Citrus Bowl Stadium, Orlando


Las Vegas Bowl

Orlando Citrus Bowl, Orlando

Dec. 29, 5:30 p.m. 26, 5 p.m. (ESPN)

Schlabach: Iowa vs. 17, 2 p.m. 19, 2:30 p.m. (ABC)

Levi’s Stadium, Santa Clara, California

Dec. Tennessee

TaxSlayer Bowl?

Schlabach: Air Force vs. (ESPN)

Schlabach: Nevada vs. (ESPN)

Schlabach: Nebraska vs. Temple

McMurphy: Louisiana Tech vs. 2, 1 p.m

Entries in long-hidden notebook show Pete Rose bet on baseball as player

After Bertolini pleaded guilty and received a federal prison sentence, Sports Illustrated, The New York Times, ESPN and other news organizations filed freedom of information requests with the U.S. Dowd and his team had sworn testimony from bookie Ron Peters that Rose bet on the Reds from 1984 through 1986, but not written documentation. One Executive Tools Spiral Notebook.” Two small boxes of other items confiscated in the postal raid on Bertolini’s house went too, including autographed baseballs and baseball cards.

“He wasn’t forthcoming with much information,” she said, “but he did acknowledge to me it was records of bets he made for Pete Rose.”

Freelance researcher Liam Quinn contributed to this report. There was a for sale sign out front, the agent told him. Both agents, former supervisor Craig Barney and former inspector Mary Flynn, said the records were indeed copies of the notebook they seized.

“This does it. “We didn’t know anything about Bertolini or his connection [to Rose].”

. We tried to get them. There was stuff everywhere,” Barney said.

“The rule says, if you bet, it doesn’t say for or against. “[Ohio bookie] Ron Peters is a golf pro, so he’s got other occupations. The largest single bet was $5,500 on the Boston Celtics, a bet he lost.

Yes, he admitted in 2004, after almost 15 years of denials, he had placed bets on baseball, but he insisted it was only as a manager.

Rose, through his lawyer, Raymond Genco, issued a statement: “Since we submitted the application earlier this year, we committed to MLB that we would not comment on specific matters relating to reinstatement. It looked to them as if Bertolini had been signing memorabilia with the forged names of some of the most famous baseball players in history: Willie Mays, Hank Aaron, Duke Snider, Mike Schmidt and Pete Rose. Dowd recently met with MLB CIO and executive vice president of administration John McHale Jr., who is leading Manfred’s review of Rose’s reinstatement request, to walk McHale through his investigation. For 26 years, the notebook has remained under court-ordered seal and is currently stored in the National Archives’ New York office, where officials have declined requests to release it publicly.

Last year, Outside the Lines again applied unsuccessfully for access to the notebook but learned it had been transferred to the National Archives under a civil action titled “United States v. That meeting likely will come sometime after the All-Star break. Postal Inspection Service in October 1989, nearly two months after Rose was declared permanently ineligible by Major League Baseball. 13, a few days after the undercover house tour and after obtaining a search warrant, they searched Bertolini’s home and found evidence that would lead to numerous convictions. In March of this year, he applied to Manfred for reinstatement. It’s impossible to count the exact number of times he bet on baseball games because not every day’s entries are legible.

“There were numbers and dates and — it was a book for sports betting,” Barney said. This closes the door,” said John Dowd, the former federal prosecutor who led MLB’s investigation.

The timing for Rose, who played in 72 games in 1986, isn’t great. “It was such a mess. But the boys in New York are about breaking arms and knees.

Although the 1989 raid on Bertolini’s house received immediate news coverage, nothing about a betting book became public for five years. And, of course, [Rose] betting while he was a player.”

For 26 years, Pete Rose has kept to one story: He never bet on baseball while he was a player.

Bats, balls, books and papers were scattered all over. He refused to give them to us,” Dowd said. That gave them probable cause to seek a search warrant.

On Oct. So Barney and Flynn, posing as a couple looking for a home, called a real estate agent and were given a guided tour of Bertolini’s house. That came during his worst week of the four-month span, when he lost $25,500.

“We knew that [Bertolini] recorded the bets, and that he bet himself, but we never had his records. On Monday morning, MLB officials declined to comment about the notebook.

“I got a call at the place where I was working at the time from my brother, and he says, ‘You should come home.’ He said, ‘There’s a bunch of government people here, and they’re here for you.’ At the time, I think it was Mary Flynn of the postal inspector’s office who got on the phone and said, ‘We’re here,’ and she told me why and so forth.

“Bertolini nails down the connection to organized crime on Long Island and New York. “He’s a liar.”

Dowd said he wished he’d had the Bertolini notebook in 1989, but he didn’t need it to justify Rose’s banishment. But one item stood out: In a box of papers in the basement, Barney said, was a spiral notebook filled with handwritten entries.

Bertolini offered his take on the raid during his sentencing hearing in U.S. Under MLB Rule 21, “Any player, umpire, or club or league official or employee, who shall bet any sum whatsoever upon any baseball game in connection with which the bettor has a duty to perform shall be declared permanently ineligible.”

The documents obtained by Outside the Lines, which reflect betting records from March through July 1986, show no evidence that Rose, who was a player-manager in 1986, bet against his team. They provide a vivid snapshot of how extensive Rose’s betting life was in 1986:

The documents are copies of pages from a notebook seized from the home of former Rose associate Michael Bertolini during a raid by the U.S. “But when he bet, he was gone. “It reeked of fraud,” Barney said.

o In the time covered in the notebook, from March through July, Rose bet on at least one MLB team on 30 different days. He placed his financial interest ahead of the Reds, period.”

The two inspectors spotted an item that a complainant said had not been returned. The man’s name was Michael Bertolini, and the business he ran out of his home was called Hit King Marketing Inc.

To Dowd, one of the most compelling elements of the newly uncovered evidence is that it supports the charge that Rose was betting with mob-connected bookies through Bertolini. It’s another device by Pete to try to excuse what he did,” Dowd said. To be sure, I’m eager to sit down with [MLB commissioner Rob] Manfred to address my entire history — the good and the bad — and my long personal journey since baseball. Therefore at this point, it’s not appropriate to comment on any specifics.” Bertolini’s lawyer, Nicholas De Feis, said his client is “not interested in speaking to anyone about these issues.”

But new documents obtained by Outside the Lines indicate Rose bet extensively on baseball — and on the  Cincinnati Reds – as he racked up the last hits of a record-smashing career in 1986.

It was immediately clear that the many notations of “PETE” in the pages represented Pete Rose.

When the case began, it didn’t look particularly enticing, Barney said. All were denied on the grounds that the notebook had been introduced as a grand jury exhibit and contained information “concerning third parties who were not of investigative interest.”

“The implications for baseball are terrible. I need to maintain that. Attorney’s Office internal memorandum from 2000 that requested the spiral notebook’s transfer said Bertolini’s closed file has “sufficient historical or other value to warrant its continued preservation by the United States Government.” The memorandum listed among its attachments a copy of the notebook, but a copy of the memorandum provided by the National Archives had no attachments and had a section redacted.

Flynn, who said her first reaction was “Holy mackerel,” said they asked Bertolini about the notebook.

Dowd, who reviewed the documents at Outside the Lines’ request, said his investigators had tried but failed to obtain Bertolini’s records, believing they would be the final piece in their case that Rose was betting with mob-connected bookmakers in New York. The postal inspector’s office in Brooklyn, New York, had received a complaint that a man in Staten Island had failed to return goods to paying customers that he was supposed to have autographed. But Dowd never had the kind of documents that could cement that part of his case, especially in the eyes of fans who wanted to see Rose returned to Major League Baseball.

“It was a mere ‘failure to render [services]‘ complaint,” said Barney, who is now retired. “This is the final piece of the puzzle on a New York betting operation with organized crime. “Never bet as a player: That’s a fact,” he said.

“I wish I had been able to use it [the book] all those years he was denying he bet on baseball,” said Flynn, the former postal inspector. The U.S. The documents go beyond the evidence presented in the 1989 Dowd report that led to Rose’s banishment and provide the first written record that Rose bet while he was still on the field.

But Rose’s supporters have based part of their case for his reinstatement on his claim that he never bet while he was a player or against his team, saying that sins he committed as a manager shouldn’t diminish what he did as a player.

o Rose bet heavily on college and professional basketball, losing $15,400 on one day in March. District Court in Brooklyn six years later (he served 14 months for tax fraud and a concurrent assault sentence):

o But on 21 of the days it’s clear he bet on baseball, he gambled on the Reds, including on games in which he played.

o Most bets, regardless of sport, were about $2,000. Attorney’s Office seeking access to the book. [The mob] had a mortgage on Pete while he was a player and manager.”

In April, Rose repeated his denial, this time on Michael Kay’s ESPN New York 98.7 FM radio show, that he bet on baseball while he was a player. They took any records I had whatsoever, and they took different personal belongings and memorabilia from my home.”

In April, Outside the Lines examined the Bertolini memorabilia kept in the National Archives’ New York office, but the betting book — held apart from everything else — was off-limits. And that is a very powerful problem,” Dowd said. Dowd also had testimony and a recorded phone conversation between Bertolini and another Rose associate, Paul Janszen, that established that Bertolini had placed bets for Rose. “I was taken aback.”

If the accusation was true, it would constitute mail fraud, but the agents had no probable cause to search Bertolini’s house.

Outside the Lines tracked down two of the postal inspectors who conducted the raid on Bertolini’s home in 1989 and asked them to review the documents. Dowd’s investigation had established that Rose was hundreds of thousands of dollars in debt at the time he was banished from the game.

Barney sent an agent to drive by the address. Their authenticity has been verified by two people who took part in the raid, which was part of a mail fraud investigation and unrelated to gambling

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Gametime Powers the Ultimate College Football Road Trip for Utah Brothers

The duo will travel in a Gametime branded Winnebago and serve

as brand ambassadors throughout their journey.

SAN FRANCISCO–(BUSINESS WIRE)–With an unrelenting passion for college football, some very strategic

planning and a bit of reckless abandon, Jameson and Mitch Ritter of Salt

Lake City will embark on the Gametime Ultimate College Football Road

Trip starting this Thursday, Sep. Syracuse) in

Syracuse, NY and Heinz Field (Pitt vs. Week Two sees the pair heading

northeast for games at the Carrier Dome (#19 Louisville vs.

Connect with Gametime on Twitter,



and Instagram.

. On Sunday, the boys head south once again to watch #10

Notre Dame visit Texas in Austin. Penn State) in Pittsburgh.


is leading innovation for last minute, on-demand tickets to live


Immediately after, the brothers will head north on I-45 to Arlington and

AT&T Stadium for a 7 p.m. From our playing days through high school

and college football Saturdays, football has always been a part of

lives,” said Jameson Ritter, 28, and eldest Ritter brother.

Gametime, the leading app for on-demand mobile ticketing, is supporting

the pair with ticket credits to get them to as many games as possible. 1. Gametime curates the best

values, presents them with in-seat panoramic views, an ultra-fast

two-tap purchase process and delivers tickets directly to smartphones

(eliminating printing). Gametime transformed the ticket purchase experience for mobile,

launching in 2013 to create the most efficient access for fans to come

together for entertainment experiences. Gametime mobilizes fans for live events to over 1000+

teams and artists in more than 50 markets throughout the U.S. Featured as a top-rated app on iOS and Android,

Gametime believes the world gets better when people have fun together. The formal record attempt was submitted in June and is

under review by the Guinness Records review board for verification.

To see the entire Ultimate College Road Trip schedule visit

“This is such a great idea that I’m mad at them for doing it! I will be

watching them with envy and admiration,” remarked Will Leitch.

About Gametime

Follow the Ritter’s amazing journey on social media at @TheRitterBros or


Following the Utah-Southern Utah opener, the Ritters will travel

southeast to Houston for the Advocare Texas Kickoff between #3 Oklahoma

and #15 Houston at NRG Stadium at 11 a.m CT on Saturday Sept. Considering the many personal and professional

variables to spending four months traversing the country, the pair has

devoted the remainder of 2016 to pursue this dream.

The Ritter brothers journey kicks off at Rice-Eccles Stadium as Utah

hosts Southern Utah on the first day of the 2016 college football

season. and


The Ritters will utilize the Gametime app to find their tickets on the

road, likely at the last minute to find the best deals and stretch their

dollars. “Having the

opportunity explore the college football landscape together and

experience the pageantry and tradition that makes college football so

special, we wanted to take this brief window in life to press pause on

career and pursue the ultimate college football fan experience.”

Beyond the pure enjoyment of the experience is the quest for a Guinness

World Record for the “Most Collegiate Football (American) Games Attended

in One Season”. In the first weekend alone the Ritters will watch three of the

most marquee games in the country, two in the same day.

“We couldn’t be more excited to tackle this adventure together! Growing

up in a football hotbed state like Ohio, our Fall’s have always been

structured around football. kickoff between #1 Alabama and #20 USC in the

Cowboys Classic. The 25,000+ mile journey will

include watching over 70 teams from 11 conferences in 15 weeks, totaling

50 game day experiences.

The Ritters began devising their strategy in early 2016, inspired by

Deadspin founder and SportsOnEarth senior editor Will

Leitch’s article series plotting a hypothetical season long college

football journey. 3

MLB Baseball Betting Forum

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Sports & Recreations :: Safety Tips for Pontoon Boats

Safety tips for driving the boat are better learned via a safe boating course, so these will be general safety tips for storing your boat and what to do before taking it out.

If your pontoon boat is stored at a dock, it is necessary for it to be tied up to the dock. This is in case of a sudden crash or impact, or if the boat flipped. You can find out more about your particular state’s laws and regulations at the appropriate Game and Inland Fisheries website for your state, or your state’s gov site.

When taking trips out on the pontoon boats fun may be your goal, but safety should always be a priority. Otherwise, if it is loose or becomes unattached, your boat may float away and hit something! When leaving for an outing on the boat, we always make sure one person is on board while one or more passengers are on the dock to untie the ropes from the cleats. At our dock there are four cleats, two in front and two in back of the boat. The boat can hold up to ten passengers, includes a built-in radio, fish finder, and spacious storage for all sorts of items underneath the seat cushions. Also, make sure to include a number of lifevests, which can be stored underneath the seat cushions on the boat. This article will outline several safety precautions to keep in mind while you’re using your pontoon boat. While I could cover them here, it is generally advised that you have completed a boating or boater’s safety course for your area. The flotation device should always be kept out in the open when your boating, just in case of an accident. While out on the water, there are several safety rules to keep in mind. You never know when they will be needed, or if certain passengers are unable to swim.. It’s very important before even starting the boat that you have this clip in place, so that if your key becomes dislodged or you have to pull it out for an emergency, the motor will shut down automatically.

A pontoon or party boat can be a fun and relaxing way to travel out on the water. This clip-on switch provides an important safety function to shut off the boat’s motor. The last thing you want is your partying to get in the way of safety and cause a hazard to other boaters or even worse an accident on the dock or water. Different states have different laws or regulations regarding who is required to have passed a boater safety course before being allowed to even drive a boat on the water. It is essential that you properly cleat the lines and that the pontoon boat is fastened securely near the dock. Then the people on the dock safely board as the pontoon boat motor has been switched on.

With many new and used pontoon boats, the key also includes a special clip for the “killswitch” or “dead man’s switch” attached by a cord on the keyring. Err on the side of caution by having 8-10 of these just in case you have a lot of passengers. We’ve found the pontoon boat to be a lot of fun to take out on the lake for journeys to explore different areas and enjoy the relaxation of being on the water.

On board the pontoon boat it’s essential to have a flotation device. These spacious boats hold as many as 15 or so people and can allow for sunbathing, music and partying! Several months ago after searching through various listings of used Pontoon boats for sale, we found a great deal on one for just under $5500

What Makes Ncaa Football 2010 Better Than 2009

It simply gets better and better through the years. There are still more new elements into the latest game but gamers are intentionally made to anticipate, to add to the surprise. With this latest feature, receivers and defensive backs now can look at the ball just before they play.

When NCAA Football 2010 comes out in July of this year, there is now room for players who get lazy while playing. The great thing about it is that there are now more than a hundred schools that participate in the 2010 game.

. What’s to be glad about with 2010 updated version is that it has all-new features that would definitely be delightful for all college football fans out there, especially when online NCAA Football 2010 gaming means points for each student who plays the game. EA Sports is deliberately keeping everything a surprise up to a certain limit. It’s simply the best.

NCAA Football has geared up through the years to become the topmost selling college football game series for more than ten years now. The simming option allows the player to pick the kind of play and the computer will play the rest of the game. That means each online participant contributes to his or her college’s winning the season.

By: Brian Kaldenberg

Here’s another incredible thing with NCAA Football 2010, procedural awareness makes the players look more realistic. It brings out much excitement in the player because of the incredible game experience it gives to every player.

With the coming of NCAA Football 2010, players would want to know exactly how it would be different from NCAA Football 2009. In the NCAA Football 2010, each school or university who is part of the Football Bowl Subdivision will be embodied by their own colors, mascots and cheerleaders. Among those that came out in the wish list is a better line play, addition of team entrances, and crowd atmosphere.

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Fans have always looked for authenticity in the NCAA football series that it has become a great challenge for EA Sports, the makers. Good thing EA Sports have always delivered authentic games each time they come up with an updated version. The makers have allowed fans to draw out wish lists for the upcoming NCAA Football 2010 so that suggestions could possibly be integrated into the game.

No, you don’t just get yourself NCAA Football 10 because it’s the latest game for your xbox 360. Still to be tested when it comes out, no one still knows if it’s bound to be effective.

That’s about it about the “known” features of the all-new NCAA Football 2010

Baseball Handicapping Formula – How To Become Great at Baseball Handicapping

The only way to fully grade a handicappers picks is over the entire season.

The fact is anyone can claim to be good at baseball handicapping. Luck has a lot to do with it. Let’s make it simple and say that a baseball handicapper is a person that analyzes two baseball teams and attempt to picks the winner.

Now you are probably reading this article because you want to know who is best. They must be up to date with all trades, injuries, trends and current statistics. Baseball season is very long and there are many ups and downs for every team. Part of being a good handicapper is promoting yourself as one. Baseball handicapping is not all based on skill. Then there are the side variable such as weather conditions, disputes among the players sand mental state of the players. The only way to test a formula is to use through an entire baseball season. A handicapper that just picks games without close examination is one that I would avoid. Don’t confuse being lucky for being good.

I would define the best baseball handicapper a one who is truly knowledgeable on the sports. There is no government rating nor is there any real tracking system. A good handicapper will take all this information and plug into their handicapping formula.. It is better to be lucky than be good, right. Anyone can create a formula and start using it, but it has to be tested. You might have a nice run for a week, start thinking you have the best system in the world then lose the next 10 games. My feelings on this are not one individual can be giving that title. For effective baseball handicapping you need to follow a formula. You just start analyzing ball games and select your winners. Be consistent with your bets and use proper money management and you will the best baseball handicapper.

Now a proven winning formula is mandatory. This formula must be battle tested.

The best baseball handicappers in one who thoroughly follows the game, uses a proven system along with all those miscellaneous variables to determine their selections. Many get lucky but luck only happens occasional. There is no license or certification required. Remember to distinguish the difference between just lucky and picking the right side. Follow the game, use a proven baseball betting formula, there are many available. I am a true believe that anyone can be the best baseball handicapper if they so desire. That is the easy part just about all handicappers claim to be the best.

Just what is a baseball handicapper? According to Wikipedia: Baseball Handicapping is the practice of assigning advantage through scoring compensation or other advantage given to different contestants to equalize the chances of winning

NFL Teams in Alphabetical Order

It is now one of the richest sporting leagues in the world. Formerly known as the American Professional Football Association, and started in the year 1920, the group soon adapted itself to the National Football League in the year 1922. Here however, is something for those of you looking for such a list in alphabetical order.

NFL Team


Arizona Cardinals

NFC West

Atlanta Falcons

NFC South

Baltimore Ravens

AFC North

Buffalo Bills

AFC East

Carolina Panthers

NFC South

Chicago Bears

NFC North

Cincinnati Bengals

AFC North

Cleveland Browns

AFC North

Dallas Cowboys

NFC East

Denver Broncos

AFC West

Detroit Lions

NFC East

Green Bay Packers

NFC North

Houston Texans

AFC South

Indianapolis Colts

AFC South

Jacksonville Jaguars

AFC South

Kansas City Chiefs

AFC West

Miami Dolphins

AFC East

Minnesota Vikings

NFC North

New England Patriots

AFC East

New Orleans Saints

NFC South

New York Giants

NFC East

New York Jets

AFC East

Oakland Raiders

AFC West

Philadelphia Eagles

NFC East

Pittsburgh Steelers

AFC North

San Diego Chargers

AFC West

San Francisco 49ers

NFC West

Seattle Seahawks

NFC West

St. Each zone has four teams, resulting in 16 teams under the AFC, and 16 under the NFC. Also known as Super Bowl Sunday, it is a day on which maximum food is consumed, after Thanksgiving!

There are a total of 32 NFL teams, which have been divided into various zones of the American Football Conference (AFC) and the National Football Conference (NFC). A very interesting fact is that, over 8 million pounds of guacamole is consumed on Super Bowl Sunday, and the sales of antacids increase drastically the next day! Such is the impact of the NFL, which seems to be only getting bigger with every passing year.. Usually, you will always find a zone-wise distribution of these teams. Every year, the Super Bowl (the NFL championship game) is what excites football fans the most, with everyone looking forward to spending time together and watching the big game over some delicious food. The AFC and NFC have four zones each-North, South, East, and West. Louis Rams

NFC West

Tampa Bay Buccaneers

NFC South

Tennessee Titans

AFC South

Washington Redskins

NFC East

As the biggest sports league that American football has ever seen, the craze about the NFL, its players, and the yearly Super Bowl only gets greater and wider. A lot of people plan Super Bowl Sunday way in advance, and ensure that they have no engagements or commitments that day. As such, the total number of NFL teams is 32

A New Wave: Sports Arbitrage Trading

Spread funds around the bookmakers and try to keep withdrawals down to once per month.

Sports arbitrage trading is starting to spread across the internet like wildfire.

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When starting out in sports arbitrage trading, many people don’t have a clue as to how many bookmakers to use and how much money to place with each bookmaker and how to fund the bookmakers. You can use either Neteller or Firepay, both of which are similar to a paypal account. Usually a spreadsheet with all of the bookmakers’ login information and passwords works well. Sports arbitrage trading is when a two bets are placed on the same sporting even with different bookmakers. Because the odds are different for each bookmaker, there is profit to be made, hence the arbitrage.

While doing sports arbitrage trading, one important thing to remember is to have some kind of organized system so that you can log into bookmakers sites quickly. Obviously placing your money with bookmakers that have more arbitrage opportunities means more possibilities to trade on. Either back through Neteller or back through Firepay. Usually a lot of bookmakers will allow you to withdraw once per month free of charge. The reason for this is you are going to want to place your funds with the bookmakers that generate the most arbitrage trading opportunities. Sports arbitrage trading is not to be confused with gambling which carries risk. It’s important to watch the bookmakers closely before placing any money with them. Many bookmakers charge a small withdrawal feel that can easily be compensated for.

Your money comes out of the bookmakers account the same way it goes in. Once these accounts are funded, you can then fund the bookmakers you have chosen to deal with. If you haven’t heard of it already, it’s not a new concept but the possibilities seem endless. It’s not necessary to know exactly what sporting events are coming up, but if you have some knowledge of big games and tournaments, usually this is a good time to trade and where you will see some high percentage arbs.

This article was posted on March 08, 2006

A New Wave: Sports Arbitrage Trading

 by: Timothy Rohrer

Finally, to maximize profits, you will need to start with a few bookmakers.


Arbitrage trading does come with a risk, but the risk is much smaller than actual gambling or betting.

The next question a lot of people ask is how do I fund the bookmakers? There are two ways to fund the bookmakers